cuingase2 based thin film solar cells

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Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Author : Kentaro Ito
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-02-23
ISBN 10 : 111843787X
Pages : 440 pages
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Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground–mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth–abundant, low–cost and non–toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS–based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS–based solar cells have the potential to be used for large–scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Author : Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2011-01-03
ISBN 10 : 9780080920320
Pages : 700 pages
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Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells provides valuable contents about the fabrication and characterization of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 based thin film solar cells and modules. The growth of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 absorbers, buffers, window layers, antireflection coatings, and finally metallic grids, which are the sole components of solar cells, is clearly illustrated. The absorber, which contains multiple elements, segregates secondary phases if the growth conditions are not well optimized i.e., the main drawback in the fabrication of solar cells. More importantly the solutions for the growth of thin films are given in detail. The properties of all the individual layers and single crystals including solar cells analyzed by different characterization techniques such as SEM, AFM, XPS, AES, TEM, XRD, optical, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy are explicitly demonstrated. The electrical analyses such as conductivities, Hall mobilities, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements etc., provide a broad picture to understand thin films or single crystals and their solar cells. The book clearly explains the working principle of energy conversion from solar to electrical with basic sciences for the chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells. Also, it demonstrates important criteria on how to enhance efficiency of the solar cells and modules. The effect of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, aging etc., on the devices is mentioned by citing several examples. Illustrates a number of growth techniques to prepare thin film layers for solar cells Discusses characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, AFM, SEM, PL, CL, Optical measurements, and Electrical measurements Includes I-V, C-V measurements illustrations Provides analysis of solar cell efficiency Presents current trends in thin film solar cells research and marketing

Thin-Film Solar Cells
Author : Yoshihiro Hamakawa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-09
ISBN 10 : 3662105497
Pages : 244 pages
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The first comprehensive book on thin-film solar cells, potentially a key technology for solving the energy production problem in the 21st century in an environmentally friendly way. It covers a wide range of scientific and technological aspects of thin film semiconductors - deposition technologies, growth mechanisms and the basic properties of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon - as well as the optimum design theory and device physics of high-efficiency solar cells, especially of single-junction and multi-junction solar cells. The development of large-area solar cell modules using single and multi-junction solar cells is also considered. Examples of recent photovoltaic systems are presented and analysed.

Solar Cells
Author : Leonid A. Kosyachenko
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2015-10-22
ISBN 10 : 9535121847
Pages : 398 pages
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This book contains chapters in which the problems of modern photovoltaics are considered. The majority of the chapters provide an overview of the results of research and development of different types of solar cells. Such chapters are completed by a justification for a new solar cell structure and technology. Of course, highly effective solar energy conversion is impossible without an in-depth examination of the solar cell components as physical materials. The relations between structural, thermodynamic, and optical properties of the physical material without addressing the band theory of solids are of both theoretical and practical interest. Requirements formulated for the material are also to be used for maximally efficient conversion of solar radiation into useful work.

Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Author : Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2011-01-03
ISBN 10 : 9780080920320
Pages : 700 pages
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Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells provides valuable contents about the fabrication and characterization of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 based thin film solar cells and modules. The growth of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 absorbers, buffers, window layers, antireflection coatings, and finally metallic grids, which are the sole components of solar cells, is clearly illustrated. The absorber, which contains multiple elements, segregates secondary phases if the growth conditions are not well optimized i.e., the main drawback in the fabrication of solar cells. More importantly the solutions for the growth of thin films are given in detail. The properties of all the individual layers and single crystals including solar cells analyzed by different characterization techniques such as SEM, AFM, XPS, AES, TEM, XRD, optical, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy are explicitly demonstrated. The electrical analyses such as conductivities, Hall mobilities, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements etc., provide a broad picture to understand thin films or single crystals and their solar cells. The book clearly explains the working principle of energy conversion from solar to electrical with basic sciences for the chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells. Also, it demonstrates important criteria on how to enhance efficiency of the solar cells and modules. The effect of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, aging etc., on the devices is mentioned by citing several examples. Illustrates a number of growth techniques to prepare thin film layers for solar cells Discusses characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, AFM, SEM, PL, CL, Optical measurements, and Electrical measurements Includes I-V, C-V measurements illustrations Provides analysis of solar cell efficiency Presents current trends in thin film solar cells research and marketing

Thin-Film Solar Cells
Author : Yoshihiro Hamakawa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2003-10-23
ISBN 10 : 9783540439455
Pages : 244 pages
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The first comprehensive book on thin-film solar cells, potentially a key technology for solving the energy production problem in the 21st century in an environmentally friendly way. It covers a wide range of scientific and technological aspects of thin film semiconductors - deposition technologies, growth mechanisms and the basic properties of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon - as well as the optimum design theory and device physics of high-efficiency solar cells, especially of single-junction and multi-junction solar cells. The development of large-area solar cell modules using single and multi-junction solar cells is also considered. Examples of recent photovoltaic systems are presented and analysed.

Advances in Thin-Film Solar Cells
Author : I. M. Dharmadasa
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-09-05
ISBN 10 : 0429668392
Pages : 286 pages
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Solar energy conversion plays a very important role in the rapid introduction of renewable energy, which is essential to meet future energy demands without further polluting the environment, but current solar panels based on silicon are expensive due to the cost of raw materials and high energy consumption during production. The way forward is to move towards thin-film solar cells using alternative materials and low-cost manufacturing methods. The photovoltaic community is actively researching thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), and dye-sensitised and organic materials. However, progress has been slow due to a lack of proper understanding of the physics behind these devices. This book concentrates on the latest developments and attempts to improve our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. The author extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multi-layer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system, and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combine "impact ionisation" and "impurity photovoltaic" effects. The improved device understanding presented in this book should impact and guide future photovoltaic device development and low-cost thin-film solar panel manufacture. This new edition features an additional chapter besides exercises and their solutions, which will be useful for academics teaching in this field.

Device Physics of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 Thin-film Solar Cells
Author : Markus Gloeckler
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2005
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 286 pages
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Nanostructured Solar Cells
Author : Narottam Das
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-02-22
ISBN 10 : 953512935X
Pages : 314 pages
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Nanostructured solar cells are very important in renewable energy sector as well as in environmental aspects, because it is environment friendly. The nano-grating structures (such as triangular or conical shaped) have a gradual change in refractive index which acts as a multilayer antireflective coating that is leading to reduced light reflection losses over broadband ranges of wavelength and angle of incidence. There are different types of losses in solar cells that always reduce the conversion efficiency, but the light reflection loss is the most important factor that decreases the conversion efficiency of solar cells significantly. The antireflective coating is an optical coating which is applied to the surface of lenses or any optical devices to reduce the light reflection losses. This coating assists for the light trapping capturing capacity or improves the efficiency of optical devices, such as lenses or solar cells. Hence, the multilayer antireflective coatings can reduce the light reflection losses and increases the conversion efficiency of nanostructured solar cells.

Thin Film Solar Cells
Author : Jef Poortmans,Vladimir Arkhipov
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2006-10-16
ISBN 10 : 0470091266
Pages : 502 pages
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Thin-film solar cells are either emerging or about to emerge from the research laboratory to become commercially available devices finding practical various applications. Currently no textbook outlining the basic theoretical background, methods of fabrication and applications currently exist. Thus, this book aims to present for the first time an in-depth overview of this topic covering a broad range of thin-film solar cell technologies including both organic and inorganic materials, presented in a systematic fashion, by the scientific leaders in the respective domains. It covers a broad range of related topics, from physical principles to design, fabrication, characterization, and applications of novel photovoltaic devices.

Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells
Author : Daniel Abou-Ras,Thomas Kirchartz,Uwe Rau
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-07-13
ISBN 10 : 352769904X
Pages : 760 pages
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The book focuses on advanced characterization methods for thin-film solar cells that have proven their relevance both for academic and corporate photovoltaic research and development. After an introduction to thin-film photovoltaics, highly experienced experts report on device and materials characterization methods such as electroluminescence analysis, capacitance spectroscopy, and various microscopy methods. In the final part of the book simulation techniques are presented which are used for ab-initio calculations of relevant semiconductors and for device simulations in 1D, 2D and 3D. Building on a proven concept, this new edition also covers thermography, transient optoelectronic methods, and absorption and photocurrent spectroscopy.

Emerging Solar Energy Materials
Author : Sadia Ameen,M. Shaheer Akhtar,Hyung-Shik Shin
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-08-01
ISBN 10 : 1789235820
Pages : 246 pages
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This book provides the fundamental understanding of the functioning of solar cellsand the materials for the effective utilization of energy resources. The main objective of writing this book is to create a comprehensive and easy-to-understand source of information on the advances in the rapidly growing research on solar cells. Emerging Solar Energy Materials comprises 12 chapters written by the experts in the solar cell field and is organized with the intention to provide a big picture of the latest progress in the solar cell field and at the same time give an in-depth discussion on fundamentals of solar cells for interested audiences. In this book, each part opens with a new author's essay highlighting their work for contribution toward solar energy. Critical, cutting-edge subjects are addressed, including: Photovoltaic device technology and energy applications; Functional solar energy materials; New concept in solar energy; Perovskite solar cells; Dye-sensitized solar cells; Organic solar cells; Thin-film solar cells. The book is written for a large and broad readership including researchers and university graduate students from diverse backgrounds such as chemistry, physics, materials science, and photovoltaic device technology. The book includes enough information on the basics to be used as a textbook undergraduate coursework in engineering and the sciences.