Criminal Motivations specifically examines the motivations of those committing a crime. The work directly approaches the topic by reviewing various motivational typologies and frameworks rather than addressing the topic indirectly, as other works do. While various contributions to motivation are discussed, the book maintains the focus on the physical and psychological needs that drive and guide behavior. These topics have been addressed in other works on psychological aspects of criminality, however few include the motivations for offending as a central focus. The individual subjects covered are assembled to "tell a story" of motive in a linear and comprehensive fashion from the development of motive right through to individual motivational typologies used to understand motive in crime types and individual crimes. This volume serves as a reference to professionals in a variety of disciplines and a manual of instruction to university students at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Focuses on the physical, social and psychological needs that drive and guide criminal behavior Covers motivational typologies and frameworks related to criminal motivations in a single source Written by an experienced, well respected current researcher author for anyone studying or practicing criminology, criminal justice or psychology
The main objective of this book is to propose an alternative criminal opportunity theory. The authors build upon social control and routine activities to develop a dynamic, multi-contextual criminal opportunity theory. Emphasizing the importance of contextual explanations of criminal acts, they propose two levels of analysis: individual and environmental. At each level, the theory pivots on three broad organizing constructs--offenders motivated to commit criminal acts, targets such as persons or property suitable as objects of criminal acts, and the presence or absence of individuals or other defensive mechanisms capable of serving as guardians against criminal acts. Crime is profoundly real, possessing qualities that make its occurrence and prevention pressing and persistent matters for individuals and societies. Theory, in contrast, is seen as highly abstract and removed from the seriousness of "real life." Theory almost seems to be a peculiar sport of an academic class. The practically minded, even some academic criminologists, are often perplexed by the seeming obsession some scholars have with theory, which, after all, is nothing more than an explanation of facts. The practically minded, seeing a compelling need to identify the crucial factors that could be used to predict and prevent crime, wonder why anyone would invest precious time and energy into speculating about the abstract, underlying details of why crime occurs when and where it does. The authors contend that every intervention, prevention, and policy is based on some theoretical explanation of the causes of human behavior. The improvement of interventions, preventions, and policies is thus directly related to the improvement of theoretical understandings of the abstract, underlying details of the causes of crime. The development of explanations of events, when properly done, is a crucial component to understanding and possibly improving the "real world." This work does just that.
The SAGE Encyclopedia of Criminal Psychology will be a modern, interdisciplinary resource aimed at students and professionals interested in the intersection of psychology (e.g., social, forensic, clinical), criminal justice, sociology, and criminology. The interdisciplinary study of human behavior in legal contexts includes numerous topics on criminal behavior, criminal justice policies and legal process, crime detection and prevention, eyewitness identification, prison life, offender assessment and rehabilitation, risk assessment and management, offender mental health, community reintegration, and juvenile offending. The study of these topics has been increasing continually since the late 1800s, with people trained in many legal professions such as policing, social work, law, academia, mental health, and corrections. This will be a comprehensive work that will provide the most current empirical information on those topics of greatest concern to students who desire to work in these fields. This encyclopedia is a unique reference work that looks at criminal behavior primarily through a scientific lens. With over 500 entries the book brings together top empirically driven researchers and clinicians across multiple fields—psychology, criminology, social work, and sociology—to explore the field.
The Fourth Edition of this highly successful text moves readers beyond often-mistaken common-sense understandings of crime by providing a rich introduction to how major scholars analyze crime. Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences, Fourth Edition shows the real-world relevance of theory by illuminating how ideas about crime play a prominent role in shaping crime-control policies and compelling students to apply theories to the contemporary milieu.
|Author||: Rand Corporation,Gail V. Bass|
|Release Date||: 1980|
|Pages||: 82 pages|
A report intended to help officials responsible for nuclear security to establish more effective systems for protecting against nuclear crimes, by drawing plausible inferences about actions and targets that adversaries are likely to prefer. Three categories of motivation are considered: ideological, economic, and personal. Possible criminals include, among others, psychotics, religious and philosophical fanatics, professional criminals, environmental extremists, political terrorists, adolescent pranksters, and disgruntled or self-seeking employees. Their crimes may range all the way from empty hoaxes to theft, sabotage, direct attack, and the holding of nuclear material or weapons for ransom or extortion. The report includes a matrix that identifies the most likely combinations of adversaries and actions, and indicates crimes that have already occurred or may have occurred.
"Digital Evidence and Computer Crime" provides the knowledge necessary to uncover and use digital evidence effectively in any kind of investigation. This completely updated edition provides the introductory materials that new students require, and also expands on the material presented in previous editions to help students develop these skills.
The purpose of this edited volume is to examine the disconnect in the sexual violence prevention field between legislation, research and practice. The work is focused primarily on United States policies and initiatives, with key case studies internationally. Contributions show that current policies are mainly based on repeat offenders: residence restrictions, registration and notification statutes, and post-sentence initiatives. While these initiatives address public fears, they are not evidence-based and do not necessarily reduce offending. Research shows that post-sentence policies may destabilize offenders and limit their ability to reintegrate with society at a critical period, therefore increasing the chances of recidivism. Furthermore, the majority of sex crimes (95%) are committed by first time offenders. This innovative book is divided into two parts juxtaposing what is currently being done legislatively with what the research evidence suggests would be best practice.
Theories of criminality and theories of victimization have traditionally been discussed as though they bore no relationship to one another. Yet, a complete explanation for crime must examine both the decision to engage in crime by an offender and the everyday actions of ordinary citizens that increase vulnerability to criminals. The integration of these approaches yields testable models that have greater predictive power than could be obtained by looking only at models of offenders or models of victim behavior. A more general perspective that accounts for both the decision to engage in crime and the selection of particular crime targets is developed and tested.
|Author||: JefferyT. Walker|
|Release Date||: 2017-07-05|
|ISBN 10||: 1351548387|
|Pages||: 560 pages|
One of the oldest and most extensive forms of criminology falls within what is referred to, among other names, as social ecology. Beginning with the work of Guerry and Quetelet, this theory became the dominate paradigm in explaining crime with the work of the Chicago School in the early 1900s, social disorganization theory, and neighborhood research attempting to deal with crime in deteriorating cities. Social ecology is also the basis for the research being conducted in environmental criminology. This volume offers a selection of the most influential works in social ecology and environmental criminology. It begins with research from human ecology and the Chicago School, extending through some of the research in social disorganization theory. It encompasses some of the major journal articles from the 1980s and 1990s in neighborhoods and crime, and then addresses some of the quintessential works in environmental criminology. It ends with groundbreaking work in this area that may indicate the future direction of the field. This valuable collection includes an excellent introduction by Jeff Walker.
In the current processes of political, economic and cultural changes serious cross-border forms of organized crime receive unprecedented attention as spectacular global media events, as 'threats' of all sorts, and as priority targets of criminal policy and political agendas. Most books on 'global organized crime' focus on one particular region, topic or event, and are written from one specific theoretical and disciplinary framework. The renowned scholars who have contributed to this volume present up-to-date expertise on regions as distant and different as Russia, Colombia, the Netherlands, Israel, Peru and Britain. They tackle phenomena such as international drug trafficking, alien and women smuggling, terrorism, East European organized crime and financial crimes. They show not only how these issues are interrelated, but also the way in which they interact with social, economic and political legitimate structures. The contributors critically question the policies and strategies currently pursued. They explore different theoretical arguments from the perspective of their own disciplines, which include economics, criminology, political science and anthropology.
Profiling and Serial Crime examines the principles of behavioral profiling and then applies them to serial crime. This book is a completely revised and updated edition of an excellent text on behavioral profiling and serial crime. It provides a theoretical and practical foundation for understanding the motivation and dynamics in a range of serial offenses. Part I of the book deals with the history, crucial issues, methods, theory, and treatment in the mainstream media. Part II discusses serial crime in detail, including bullying, stalking, rape, murder, and arson. The title of this edition reflects the focus on profiling as well as serial crime and has been updated throughout with the latest research. New to this edition are five all-new chapters, including serial harassment and cyber-bullying and the motivations of victim and offender; two replacement chapters on serial rape and serial arson; enhanced pedagogy to keep students focused on what’s important; and new ancillary materials for both instructor and student. The book consists of ancillary online materials for instructors and students, including lecture slides, test bank and case studies. Numerous case examples are included to show the real world uses of behavioral profiling in investigations. This book will appeal to professionals and students in criminal justice and forensic psychology programs, as well as those taking courses in criminal profiling, especially courses on serial crime. Provides a theoretical and practical foundation for understanding the motivation and dynamics in a range of serial offenses Ancillary online materials for instructors and students, including lecture slides, test bank and case studies Numerous case examples show the real world uses of behavioral profiling in investigations
Environmental criminology is a generic label that covers a range of overlapping perspectives. At the core, the various strands of environmental criminology are bound by a common focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the performance of crime, and a conviction that careful analyses of these environmental influences are the key to the effective investigation, control and prevention of crime. Environmental Crime and Crime Analysis brings together for the first time the key contributions to environmental criminology to comprehensively define the field and synthesize the concepts and ideas surrounding environmental criminology. The chapters are written by leading theorists and practitioners in the field. Each chapter will analyze one of the twelve major elements of environmental criminology and crime analysis. This book will be essential reading for both practitioners and undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in this subject.
Twenty-five leading contemporary theorists of criminal law tackle a range of foundational issues about the proper aims and structure of the criminal law in a liberal democracy. The challenges facing criminal law are many. There are crises of over-criminalization and over-imprisonment; penal policy has become so politicized that it is difficult to find any clear consensus on what aims the criminal law can properly serve; governments seeking to protect their citizens in the face of a range of perceived threats have pushed the outer limits of criminal law and blurred its boundaries. To think clearly about the future of criminal law, and its role in a liberal society, foundational questions about its proper scope, structure, and operations must be re-examined. What kinds of conduct should be criminalized? What are the principles of criminal responsibility? How should offences and defences be defined? The criminal process and the criminal trial need to be studied closely, and the purposes and modes of punishment should be scrutinized. Such a re-examination must draw on the resources of various disciplines-notably law, political and moral philosophy, criminology and history; it must examine both the inner logic of criminal law and its place in a larger legal and political structure; it must attend to the growing field of international criminal law, it must consider how the criminal law can respond to the challenges of a changing world. Topics covered in this volume include the question of criminalization and the proper scope of the criminal law; the grounds of criminal responsibility; the ways in which offences and defences should be defined; the criminal process and its values; criminal punishment; the relationship between international criminal law and domestic criminal law. Together, the essays provide a picture of the exciting state of criminal law theory today, and the basis for further research and debate in the coming years.
|Author||: Wilbur R. Miller|
|Publisher||: SAGE Publications|
|Release Date||: 2012-07-20|
|ISBN 10||: 1412988780|
|Pages||: 2712 pages|
Several encyclopedias overview the contemporary system of criminal justice in America, but full understanding of current social problems and contemporary strategies to deal with them can come only with clear appreciation of the historical underpinnings of those problems. Thus, this five-volume work surveys the history and philosophy of crime, punishment, and criminal justice institutions in America from colonial times to the present. It covers the whole of the criminal justice system, from crimes, law enforcement and policing, to courts, corrections and human services. Among other things, this encyclopedia: explicates philosophical foundations underpinning our system of justice; charts changing patterns in criminal activity and subsequent effects on legal responses; identifies major periods in the development of our system of criminal justice; and explores in the first four volumes - supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents - evolving debates and conflicts on how best to address issues of crime and punishment. Its signed entries in the first four volumes--supplemented by a fifth volume containing annotated primary documents--provide the historical context for students to better understand contemporary criminological debates and the contemporary shape of the U.S. system of law and justice.
In 1978, the Social and Demographic Research Institute of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, received a grant from the National Institute of Justice to undertake a comprehensive review of the literature on weapons, crime, and violence in the United States. The purpose of the project is best described as a "sifting and winnowing" of the claims and counterclaims from both sides of the Great American Gun Warâthe perennial struggle in AmeriÂcan political life over what to do, if anything, about guns, about violence, and about crime. The review and analysis of the available studies consumed the better part of three years; the results of this work are contained in this volume. The intention of any review is to take stock of the available fund of knowledge in some topical area. Under the Gun is no different: our goal has been to glean from the volumes of previous studies those facts that, in our view, seem firmly and certainly established; those hypotheses that seem adequately supported by, or at least approximately consistent with, the best available research evidence; and those areas or topics about which, it seems, we need to know a lot more than we do. One of our major conclusions can be stated in advance: despite the large number of studies that have been done, many critically important questions have not been adequately researched, and some of them have not been examined at all. Much of the available research in the area of weapons and crime has been done by advocates for one or another policy position. As a consequence, the manifest intent of many "studies" is to persuade rather than to inform. We have tried to approach the topic from a purely agnostic point of view, treating as an open question what policies should be enacted with regard to gun, or crime, control. Thus, we have tried to judge each study on its own merits, on the basis of the routine standards normally applied to social-scientific research, and not on the basis of how effectively it argues for a particular policy direction. It would, of course, be presumptuous to claim that we have set aside all our own biases in conducting this study. Whether or not our treatment is fair and objective is clearly something for the reader, and not us, to decide.
Visual techniques for applying criminological theory to social science research Introducing Criminological Thinking: Maps, Theories, and Understanding is an accessible and user-friendly criminological theory text for students, instructors and researchers. In addition to the unique use of concept maps, mind maps, and other visual techniques to consider theory-based inquiry, this text combines an exploration of the core elements of theory with relevant examples drawn from biology, psychology, sociology, critical traditions, and integrative efforts. Unlike in other theory texts, the chapters are arranged by level of explanation to help students understand how theories from different disciplines interact with each other as a foundation for many contemporary criminological theories. Authors Jon Heidt and Johannes Wheeldon have developed a seven-step model to identify key aspects of different theories including their historical and social context, base assumptions, scope, problem foci, terms/concepts, related research, and practical ramifications. This text offers both a student-friendly theoretical discussion and accessible visual examples to explain criminological theory and its applicability to social science research.
Criminology is at a crossroads. In the last two decades it has largely failed to produce the kind of new intellectual frameworks and empirical data that might help us to explain the high levels of crime and interpersonal violence that beset inner city areas and corrode community life. Similarly, it has failed to adequately explain forms of antisocial behaviour that are just as much a part of life in corporate boardrooms as they are in the ghettos of north America and the sink estates of Britain. Criminology needs to rethink the problem of crime and re-engage its audience with strident theoretical analysis and powerful empirical data. In New Directions in Crime and Deviancy some of the world’s most talented and polemical critical criminologists come together to offer new ideas and new avenues for analysis. The book contains chapters that address a broad range of issues central to 21st century critical criminology: ecological issues and the new green criminology; the broad impact of neoliberalism upon our cultural and economic life; recent signs of political resistance and opposition; systemic and interpersonal forms of violence; growing fear and enmity in cities; the backlash against the women’s movement; the subjective pathology of the serial killer; computer hacking and so on. Based on key papers presented at the historic York Deviancy Conferences, this cutting-edge volume also contains important critical essays that address criminological research methods and the production of criminological knowledge. It is key reading material for those with an academic interest in critical, cultural and theoretical criminology, and crime and deviance more generally.
Serial Crime, Second Edition, examines serial predatory behavior and is divided into two main parts. Part one deals with behavioral profiling, and covers a variety of critical issues from the history of profiling and the theoretical schools of thought to its treatment in the mainstream media. This updated edition includes new sections on the problems of induction, metacognition in criminal profiling, and investigative relevance. Part two deals more specifically with a number of types of serial crime including stalking, rape, murder, and arson. Chapters on each of these crimes provide definitions and thresholds, and discussions of the offenders, the crime, and its dynamics. Considerations for behavioral profiling and investigations and the development of new paradigms in each area are interwoven throughout. Topics are conceptually and practically related since profiling has typically seen most application in serial crimes and similar investigations. The unique presentation of the book successfully connects the concepts and creates links to criminal behavior across crimes—murder, sexual assault, and arson—something no other title does. The connection of serial behavior to profiling, the most useful tool in discovering behavior patterns, is also new to the body of literature available and serves to examine the ideal manner in which profiling can be used in conjunction with behavioral science to positively affect criminal investigations. * Provides a theoretical and practical foundation for understanding the motivation and dynamics in a range of serial offenses * Illustrates the promise, purposes and pitfalls of behavioral profiling in the investigation of various serial crimes * Numerous case examples show the real world uses of behavioral profiling in investigations, as well as highlighting a variety of issues in understanding and investigating serial crime
This book introduces the important words and themes which students need to know in order to succeed at criminology. It doesn't aim to be a dictionary rather it brings together a comprehensive list of those essential words that students need. It has the advantage of being able to offer longer definitions of terms as well as suggesting terms which are new to the subject area and which are helping change the discipline eg 'green criminology'. The book is a proactive intervention in the development of criminology and includes cross referencing throughout, relevant sources cited, annotated guide to further reading and an overview of critiques of each concept.
|Author||: Sara Schatz|
|Release Date||: 2014-07-14|
|ISBN 10||: 9401792496|
|Pages||: 114 pages|
This brief fills a gap in the studies of organized crime in Mexico (Kan 2012, Ríos 2011, Dell 2011) by documenting and mapping the post-2008 assassination of Mexican border police chiefs. It traces out a “systematic” of law-enforcement assassination in Northern Tier Mexico, showing how the selective, often sequential, hits by cartels on chiefs in border towns and along key drug-trafficking corridors has proven an effective strategy by organized crime elements to serve several goals: (1) to retaliate for federal, state and local prosecution, (2) to try and neutralize police chiefs, (3) to achieve intermittent local governance and/or to seed corrupt police chiefs at the municipal level, and, (4) to reduce local governmental capacity to obtain greater freedom for movement of goods. It is argued that the tactical advantage of organized crime elements gives them relatively easy physical access to law enforcement targets and thus is thus one prime element facilitating the use of assassination as a strategy. U.S. and Mexican legal, political and judicial institutions have not been able to adequately restrict opportunity for law-enforcement assassinations. The inability to reduce access to weapons and officials, to increase security for police personnel, to reduce corruption and punish offenders sets the stage for the assassination of local law enforcement. Yet, it is the goals of organized crime elements (to clear drug-smuggling routes and to try and gain more pliant governance at the municipal level) that ultimately motivate such killings.