|Author||: Carla Guerriero|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-12-11|
|ISBN 10||: 0128129360|
|Pages||: 310 pages|
Cost-benefit Analysis of Environmental Health Interventions clearly articulates the core principles and fundamental methodologies underpinning the modern economic assessment of environmental intervention on human health. Taking a practical approach, the book provides a step-by-step approach to assigning a monetary value to the health benefits and disbenefits arising from interventions, using environmental information and epidemiological evidence. It summarizes environmental risk factors and explores how to interpret and understand epidemiological data using concentration-response, exposure-response or dose-response techniques, explaining the environmental interventions available for each environmental risk factor. It evaluates in detail two of the most challenging stages of Cost-Benefit Analysis in ‘discounting’ and ‘accounting for uncertainty’. Further chapters describe how to analyze and critique results, evaluate potential alternatives to Cost-Benefit Analysis, and on how to engage with stakeholders to communicate the results of Cost-Benefit Analysis. The book includes a detailed case study how to conduct a Cost-Benefit Analysis. It is supported by an online website providing solution files and detailing the design of models using Excel. Provides a clear understanding of the core theory of cost-benefit analysis in environmental health interventions Provides practical guidance using real-world case studies to motivate and expand understanding Describes the challenging ‘discounting’ and ‘accounting for uncertainty’ problems at chapter length Supported by a practical case study, online solution files, and a practical guide to the design of CBA models using Excel
Each year, millions of children in developing countries fall sick and die from diseases caused by polluted air, contaminated water and soil, and poor hygiene behavior. Repeated infectious also contribute to malnutrition in children, and subsequently impacts future learning and productivity. This book analyzes the linkages between malnutrition and environmental health, and assesses the burden of disease on young children, and its economic costs.
The extent of urban air pollution in Pakistan—South Asia's most urbanized country—is among the world’s most severe, significantly damaging human health, quality of life, and the economy and environment of Pakistan. The harm from Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the highest in South Asia, exceeding several high-profile causes of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. Improved air quality management (AQM) in Pakistan can have notable economic and health benefits. For example, the estimated health benefits per dollar spent on cleaner diesel are approximately US $1–1.5 for light-duty diesel vehicles and US $1.5–2.4 for large buses and trucks. This report advocates that Pakistan allocate resources to AQM, because its air quality is severely affecting millions of Pakistanis, and because experiences around the world indicate that interventions can significantly improve air quality. This report details a broad spectrum of research on Pakistan’s AQM challenges, and identifies a comprehensive set of steps to improve air quality. The research presented here underpins the conclusions that addressing Pakistan's urban air pollution requires coordinated interventions to strengthen AQM, build agencies' institutional capacity, bolster AQM's legal and regulatory framework, implement policy reforms and investments, and fill knowledge gaps. However, Pakistan's policy makers face major obstacles, including limited financial, human, and technical resources, and can pursue only a few AQM interventions at the same time. In the short term, Pakistan's AQM should give highest priority to reducing pollutants linked to high morbidity and mortality: PM2.5 (and precursors like SOx and NOx) from mobile sources. A second-level short-term priority could be PM2.5, SOx, and emissions of toxic metals from stationary sources. An important medium-term priority should be mass transportation in major cities, controlling traffic, and restricting private cars during high-pollution episodes. A long-term priority could be taxing hydrocarbons, based on their contribution to greenhouse gases.
A timely collection of arguments and data for prioritizing responses to some of the most serious problems facing the world, such as climate change, communicable diseases, and financial instability, features contributions by economists from around the world. Simultaneous.
Over the past four decades, the prevalence of autism, asthma, ADHD, obesity, diabetes, and birth defects have grown substantially among children around the world. Not coincidentally, more than 80,000 new chemicals have been developed and released into the global environment during this same period. Today the World Health Organization attributes 36% of all childhood deaths to environmental causes. Children's environmental health is a new and expanding discipline that studies the profound impact of chemical and environmental hazards on child health. Amid mounting evidence that children are exquisitely sensitive to their environment-and that exposure during their developmental "windows of susceptibility" can trigger cellular changes that lead to disease and disability in infancy, childhood, and across the life span-there is a compelling need for continued scientific study of the relationship between children's health and environment. The Textbook of Children's Environmental Health codifies the knowledge base and offers an authoritative and comprehensive guide to this important new field. Edited by two internationally recognized pioneers in the area, this volume presents up-to-date information on the chemical, biological, physical, and societal hazards that confront children in today's world: pesticides, indoor and outdoor air pollution, lead, arsenic, phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields, and the built environment. It presents carefully documented data on rising rates of disease in children, offers a critical summary of new research linking pediatric disease with environmental exposures, and explores the cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying diseases of environmental origin. With this volume's emphasis upon integrating theory and practice, readers will find practical approaches to channeling scientific findings into evidence-based strategies for preventing and identifying the environmental hazards that cause disease in children. It is a landmark work that will serve as the field's benchmark for years to come.
|Publisher||: OECD Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2006-01-30|
|ISBN 10||: 926401005X|
|Pages||: 314 pages|
An in-depth assessment of the most recent conceptual and methodological developments in cost-benefit analysis and the environment.
Environmental health remains at the periphery of sustainable development, because it is inadequately defined and institutionally fragmented. This publication aims to provide ways of addressing this multisectoral problem. It is in three parts. The first looks at harmonising sectoral priorities and shows that environmental health can target at least as much disease as the health sector. The second part provides environmental health assessment guidelines. The third part looks at the results of a pilot project to put theory into practice in Ghana.
|Author||: Michael A. Livermore,Richard L. Revesz|
|Publisher||: Oxford University Press|
|Release Date||: 2013-01-07|
|ISBN 10||: 0199324115|
|Pages||: 352 pages|
Cost-benefit analysis -- the formal estimating and weighing of the costs and benefits of policy alternatives -- is a standard tool for governments in advanced economies. Through decades of research and innovation, institutions have developed in the United States, European Union, and other developed countries that examine and weigh policy alternatives as an aid to governmental decisionmaking. Lawmakers in the advanced economies have used cost-benefit analysis to evaluate core environmental and public health questions, such as urban air pollution control, water quality, and occupational safety. Yet despite its broad adoption in the industrialized world, most developing and emerging countries have not yet incorporated cost-benefit analysis into their policymaking process. Because these countries face significant limitations on financial resources and have less ability to shoulder inefficient rules, it is extremely important for their officials to determine which policies maximize net benefits for their societies. The Globalization of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy examines how cost-benefit analysis can help developing and emerging countries confront the next generation of environmental and public-health challenges. Analysis in the book examines the growing reach of cost-benefit analysis; presents relevant case studies where cost-benefit analysis has been incorporated in the Americas, Africa, Middle East, and Asia; and includes a discussion on the conceptual and institutional issues that must be addressed when adopting cost-benefit analysis in developing and emerging countries. In part because governments in developing and emerging countries have not extensively used cost-benefit analysis, there has been only limited research and discussion of the practice and its potential. Most work that has been done is on the domestic or regional level, and has not been widely shared or distributed within the international academic or policy community. By providing both theoretical and practical discussion of this important new tool, this book makes a valuable contribution to the fields of environmental policy, development studies, and environmental law.
|Author||: Kenneth Joseph Arrow,American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research|
|Publisher||: A E I Press|
|Release Date||: 1996|
|Pages||: 18 pages|
This primer highlights both the strengths and the limitations of benefit-cost analysis in the development, design, and implementation of regulatory reform.
|Author||: Charles N. Mock,Rachel Nugent,Olive Kobusingye,Kirk R. Smith|
|Publisher||: World Bank Publications|
|Release Date||: 2017-10-27|
|ISBN 10||: 1464805237|
|Pages||: 300 pages|
The substantial burden of death and disability that results from interpersonal violence, road traffic injuries, unintentional injuries, occupational health risks, air pollution, climate change, and inadequate water and sanitation falls disproportionally on low- and middle-income countries. Injury Prevention and Environmental Health addresses the risk factors and presents updated data on the burden, as well as economic analyses of platforms and packages for delivering cost-effective and feasible interventions in these settings. The volume's contributors demonstrate that implementation of a range of prevention strategies-presented in an essential package of interventions and policies-could achieve a convergence in death and disability rates that would avert more than 7.5 million deaths a year.
|Author||: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Committee to Evaluate Measures of Health Benefits for Environmental, Health, and Safety Regulation|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2006-04-28|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309164849|
|Pages||: 382 pages|
Promoting human health and safety by reducing exposures to risks and harms through regulatory interventions is among the most important responsibilities of the government. Such efforts encompass a wide array of activities in many different contexts: improving air and water quality; safeguarding the food supply; reducing the risk of injury on the job, in transportation, and from consumer products; and minimizing exposure to toxic chemicals. Estimating the magnitude of the expected health and longevity benefits and reductions in mortality, morbidity, and injury risks helps policy makers decide whether particular interventions merit the expected costs associated with achieving these benefits and inform their choices among alternative strategies. Valuing Health for Regulatory Cost-Effectiveness Analysis provides useful recommendations for how to measure health-related quality of- life impacts for diverse public health, safety, and environmental regulations. Public decision makers, regulatory analysts, scholars, and students in the field will find this an essential review text. It will become a standard reference for all government agencies and those consultants and contractors who support the work of regulatory programs.
Grounded in a transdisciplinary approach, this groundbreaking text provides extensive, evidence-based information on the value of communities as the primary drivers of their own health and well-being. It describes foundational community health concepts and procedures and presents proven strategies for engaging communities as resources for their own health improvementñan important determinant of individual well-being. It is based on recommendations by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and on the premise that healthy communities are those with populations that participate in their own health promotion, maintenance, and sustenance. The book is unique in its integration of environmental and social justice issues as they significantly affect the advancement of community health. The text focuses on community-oriented health interventions informed by prevention, inclusiveness, and timeliness that both promote better health and are more cost effective than individually focused interventions. It addresses the foundations of community-oriented health services including their history, social determinants, concepts, and policies as well as the economics of community-oriented health services and health disparities and equity. It covers procedures for designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating sustainable community health coalitions along with tools for measuring their success. Detailed case studies describe specific settings and themes in U.S. and international community health practice in which communities are both enactors and beneficiaries. An accompanying instructor's manual provides learning exercises, field-based experiential assignments, and multiple-choice questions. A valuable resource for students and practitioners of education, public policy, and social services, this book bridges the perspectives of environmental justice, public health, and community well-being and development, which, while being mutually interdependent, have rarely been considered together. KEY FEATURES: Offers a new paradigm for improving public health through community-driven health coalitions Includes evidence-based strategies for engaging communities in the pursuit of health Demonstrates how to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health partnerships Presents transdisciplinary approaches that consider environmental and social justice variables Includes contributions of international authors renowned in community health research and practice
This text introduces students to the core concepts and principles of public health: the nature and scope of public health; its history; an introduction to health determinants and epidemiology; evidence-based practice in public health and understanding public health data plus more.
|Release Date||: 2012-01-09|
|ISBN 10||: 1464964602|
|Pages||: 1345 pages|
Issues in National, Regional, and Environmental Health and Medicine: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about National, Regional, and Environmental Health and Medicine. The editors have built Issues in National, Regional, and Environmental Health and Medicine: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about National, Regional, and Environmental Health and Medicine in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in National, Regional, and Environmental Health and Medicine: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
|Author||: Emma McIntosh|
|Publisher||: Oxford University Press|
|Release Date||: 2010-06-24|
|ISBN 10||: 0199237123|
|Pages||: 267 pages|
This book provides a comprehensive set of instructions and examples of how to perform a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of a health intervention, with a particular focus on the use of stated preference survey methods to identify consumer preference data and the use of recent developments in cost-effectiveness analysis within a CBA framework.
|Publisher||: DIANE Publishing|
|ISBN 10||: 1428904662|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
In 1998, a National Academy of Sciences panel called for an integrated, risk-based food safety system. This goal is widely embraced, but there has been little advance in thinking about how to integrate knowledge about food safety risks into a system- wide risk analysis framework. Such a framework is the essential scientific basis for better priority setting and resource allocation to improve food safety. Sandra Hoffmann and Michael Taylor bring together leading scientists, risk analysts, and economists, as well as experienced regulators and policy analysts, to better define the priority setting problem and focus on the scientific and intellectual resources available to construct a risk analysis framework for improving food safety. Toward Safer Food provides a common starting point for discussions about how to construct this framework. The book includes a multi-disciplinary introduction to the existing data, research, and methodological and conceptual approaches on which a system-wide risk analysis framework must draw. It also recognizes that efforts to improve food safety will be influenced by the current institutional context, and provides an overview of the ways in which food safety law and administration affect priority setting. Hoffman and Taylor intend their book to be accessible to people from a wide variety of backgrounds. At the same time, they retain the core conceptual sophistication needed to understand the challenges that are inherent in improving food safety. The editors hope that this book will help the U.S. move beyond a call for an integrated, risk-based system toward its actual construction.
|Author||: Nilgun B. Harmanciogammalu,M.N. Alpaslan,S.D. Ozkul,V.P. Singh|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-06|
|ISBN 10||: 9401156166|
|Pages||: 546 pages|
An integrated approach to environmental data management is necessitated by the complexity of the environmental problems that need to be addresses, coupled with the interdisciplinary approach that needs to be adopted to solve them. Agenda 21 of the Rio Environmental Conference mandated international programmes and organizations to take steps to develop common data and information management plans, and steps have been taken in this direction. The key word that defines the framework of the present book is `integration'. The book establishes the basics of integrated approaches and covers environmental data management systems within that framework, covering all aspects of data management, from objectives and constraints, design of data collection networks, statistical and physical sampling, remote sensing and GIS, databases, reliability of data, data analysis, and the transformation of data into information.
|Author||: William Jack|
|Publisher||: World Bank Publications|
|Release Date||: 1999-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 9780821345719|
|Pages||: 298 pages|
Developing countries present health economists with an array of situations and circumstances not seen in developed countries. This book explores those characteristics particular to developing countries.
Stay current in the ever-changing discipline of rheumatology with clear, reliable guidance from Hochberg’s Rheumatology, one of the most respected and trusted sources in the field. Designed to meet the needs of the practicing clinician, this medical reference book provides extensive, authoritative coverage of rheumatic diseases from basic scientific principles to practical points of clinical management in a lucid, logical, user-friendly manner. Track disease progression and treat patients more effectively with the information on genetic findings, imaging outcomes, cell and biologic therapies, rheumatoid arthritis, and SLE. Incorporate recent findings about pathogenesis of disease; imaging outcomes for specific diseases like RA, osteoarthritis, and spondyloarthropathies; cell and biologic therapies; and other timely topics. Remain up to date on the latest information in rheumatology through 13 brand-new chapters covering biomedical and translation science, disease and outcome assessment, new imaging modalities, early emerging disease, clinical therapeutics, patient management, and rehabilitation. Take advantage of expanded coverage of small molecule treatment, biologics, biomarkers, epigenetics, biosimilars, and cell-based therapies. Focus on the core knowledge needed for successful results with each chapter co-authored by an internationally-renowned specialist in the field. Easily find the information you need thanks to a consistent, user-friendly format with templated content and large-scale images.