The Evolution of Cooperation provides valuable insights into the age-old question of whether unforced cooperation is ever possible. Widely praised and much-discussed, this classic book explores how cooperation can emerge in a world of self-seeking egoists-whether superpowers, businesses, or individuals-when there is no central authority to police their actions. The problem of cooperation is central to many different fields. Robert Axelrod recounts the famous computer tournaments in which the "cooperative” program Tit for Tat recorded its stunning victories, explains its application to a broad spectrum of subjects, and suggests how readers can both apply cooperative principles to their own lives and teach cooperative principles to others.
|Author||: Robert Redfield|
|Release Date||: 1942|
|Pages||: 240 pages|
|Author||: Rickey Cothran,Martin Thiel|
|Publisher||: Oxford University Press, USA|
|Release Date||: 2020-04-24|
|ISBN 10||: 0190688556|
|Pages||: 584 pages|
This is the sixth volume of a ten-volume series on The Natural History of the Crustacea. The volume synthesizes in nineteen chapters our current understanding of diverse topics in crustacean reproductive biology. In the first part of this book, the chapters address allocation strategies to reproduction, gamete production, brooding behavior, and other components of parental care in crustaceans. The second part of the volume centers on sexual systems in crustaceans. The third section of the volume covers crustacean mating systems and sexual selection. Reproductive Biology ends with three chapters covering diverse topics including reproductive rhythms, crustacean personality research, and record breaking crustaceans with respect to reproductive characters.
Researchers in several fields are exploring computational systems in which interesting global behavior emerges from local interactions among component parts - an approach called emergent computation. In these systems, interactions among simultaneous computations are exploited to improve efficiency, increase flexibility, or provide more realistic models of natural phenomena. These 31 essays define and explore the concept of emergent computation in such areas as artificial networks, adaptive systems, classifier systems, connectionist learning, other learning, and biological networks to determine what properties are required of the supporting architectures that generate them. Many of the essays share the themes of design (how to construct such systems), the importance of preexisting structure to learning and the role of parallelism, and the tension between cooperative and competitive models of interaction. In the introduction, Stephanie Forrest presents several detailed examples of the kinds of problems emergent computation can address. These include showing how emergent computation can lead to efficiency improvements in parallel processing, establishing the connection between emergent computation and nonlinear systems, and comparing two search techniques to show how the emergent-computational approach to a problem differs from other more conventional approaches. Stephanie Forrest is Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of New Mexico. She is also affiliated with the Center for Nonlinear Studies and Computing Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
The book aims to integrate our understanding of mammalian societies into a novel synthesis that is relevant to behavioural ecologists, ecologists, and anthropologists. It adopts a coherent structure that deals initially with the characteristics and strategies of females, before covering those of males, cooperative societies and hominid societies. It reviews our current understanding both of the structure of societies and of the strategies of individuals; it combines coverage of relevant areas of theory with coverage of interspecific comparisons, intraspecific comparisons and experiments; it explores both evolutionary causes of different traits and their ecological consequences; and it integrates research on different groups of mammals with research on primates and humans and attempts to put research on human societies into a broader perspective.
Essays from a range of disciplinary perspectives show the central role that cooperation plays in structuring our world. This collection reports on the latest research on an increasingly pivotal issue for evolutionary biology: cooperation. The chapters are written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives and utilize research tools that range from empirical survey to conceptual modeling, reflecting the rich diversity of work in the field. They explore a wide taxonomic range, concentrating on bacteria, social insects, and, especially, humans. Part I ("Agents and Environments") investigates the connections of social cooperation in social organizations to the conditions that make cooperation profitable and stable, focusing on the interactions of agent, population, and environment. Part II ("Agents and Mechanisms") focuses on how proximate mechanisms emerge and operate in the evolutionary process and how they shape evolutionary trajectories. Throughout the book, certain themes emerge that demonstrate the ubiquity of questions regarding cooperation in evolutionary biology: the generation and division of the profits of cooperation; transitions in individuality; levels of selection, from gene to organism; and the "human cooperation explosion" that makes our own social behavior particularly puzzling from an evolutionary perspective.
|Author||: Mou Daiqing|
|Release Date||: 1985|
|Pages||: 18 pages|
|Author||: Catherine Salmon,Todd K. Shackelford|
|Publisher||: Oxford University Press|
|Release Date||: 2011-05-27|
|ISBN 10||: 0195396693|
|Pages||: 409 pages|
The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Family Psychology focuses on the psychology behind people's familial behavior, an understanding of which can illuminate our understanding of modern, ancient, and animal families.