|Author||: Charlotte Hemelrijk|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2005-09-29|
|ISBN 10||: 9780521846554|
|Pages||: 194 pages|
Self-organisation of social behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in animals and humans. It is observed in numerous aspects of social behaviour, such as group formation, task-division, foraging, dominance interactions, infant protection, language and voting. It also influences evolution in unexpected ways. The book contains studies of social behaviour ranging from single-celled organisms to humans, and shows recent progress in these fields. It illustrates the mutual benefit of the combination of empirical work using mathematical and computer models.
|Author||: Frank Schweitzer|
|Publisher||: World Scientific|
|Release Date||: 2002-12-09|
|ISBN 10||: 9814488356|
|Pages||: 404 pages|
Economics and the social sciences are, in fact, the “hard” sciences, as Herbert Simon argued, because the complexity of the problems dealt with cannot simply be reduced to analytically solvable models or decomposed into separate subprocesses. Nevertheless, in recent years, the emerging interdisciplinary “sciences of complexity” have provided new methods and tools for tackling these problems, ranging from complex data analysis to sophisticated computer simulations. In particular, advanced methods developed in the natural sciences have recently also been applied to social and economic problems. The twenty-one chapters of this book reflect this modern development from various modeling perspectives (such as agent-based models, evolutionary game theory, reinforcement learning and neural network techniques, time series analysis, non-equilibrium macroscopic dynamics) and for a broad range of socio-economic applications (market dynamics, technological evolution, spatial dynamics and economic growth, decision processes, and agent societies). They jointly demonstrate a shift of perspective in economics and the social sciences that is allowing a new outlook in this field to emerge. Contents:Market Dynamics:Trading Behavior and Excess Volatility in Toy Markets (M Marsili & D Challet)Percolation Models of Financial Market Dynamics (D Stauffer)Electrodynamical Model of Quasi-Efficient Financial Markets (K N Ilinski & A S Stepanenko)Multi-Agent Market Modeling of Foreign Exchange Rates (G Zimmermann et al.)Forecasting Price Increments Using an Artificial Neural Network (F Castiglione)Spectral Regularization, Data Complexity and Agent Behavior (A Ilyinsky)Technological Evolution:Dynamics of Economic and Technological Search Processes in Complex Adaptive Landscapes (W Ebeling et al.)New Results in a Self-Organized Model of Technological Evolution (A Arenas et al.)Firms' Decision-Making Process in an Evolutionary Model of Industrial Dynamics (W Kwasnicki)Spatial Dynamics and Economic Growth:Modelling Migration and Economic Agglomeration with Active Brownian Particles (F Schweitzer)The Evolution of Industrial Clusters — Simulating Spatial Dynamics (T Brenner & N Weigelt)The Growth Dynamics of German Business Firms (J Voit)A Dynamic Theory of a Firm: An Application of ‘Economic Forces’ (M Estola)Decision Processes:Adaptive Platform Dynamics in Multi-Party Spatial Voting (B M R Stadler)Subtle Nonlinearity in Popular Album Charts (R A Bentley & H D G Maschner)Dynamical Aspects in the Adoption of Agri-Environmental Measures (G Weisbuch & G Boudjema)Collective Choice and Mutual Knowledge Structures (D Richards et al.)Agent Societies:Evolutionary Study of Interethnic Co-Operation (V Kvasnicka & J Pospichal)Coalition Factor in the Evolution of Non-Kin Altruism (J-L Dessalles)Optimal Payoff Functions for Members of Collectives (D H Wolpert & K Tumer)A Day at the Beach: Human Agents Self-Organizing on the Sand Pile (H Ishii et al.) Readership: Researchers in the field of complex system science, economists, sociologists, physicists with an interdisciplinary focus, graduates, and professionals. Keywords:
|Author||: Robert Redfield|
|Release Date||: 1942|
|Pages||: 240 pages|
The Evolution of Cooperation provides valuable insights into the age-old question of whether unforced cooperation is ever possible. Widely praised and much-discussed, this classic book explores how cooperation can emerge in a world of self-seeking egoists-whether superpowers, businesses, or individuals-when there is no central authority to police their actions. The problem of cooperation is central to many different fields. Robert Axelrod recounts the famous computer tournaments in which the "cooperative” program Tit for Tat recorded its stunning victories, explains its application to a broad spectrum of subjects, and suggests how readers can both apply cooperative principles to their own lives and teach cooperative principles to others.
|Author||: Michael Hülsmann,Katja Windt|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2007-06-30|
|ISBN 10||: 3540474501|
|Pages||: 417 pages|
One of the great challenges in flexible production and supply chains is the availability of necessary information at any time and place. Autonomous logistics processes can bring about fast and flexible adaptations to change. This book identifies autonomous logistics processes and details how they differ from conventionally managed processes. Coverage also describes the changes that autonomy will cause in order processing.
The scientific study of networks - computer, social, and biological - has received an enormous amount of interest in recent years. However, the network approach has been applied to the field of animal behaviour relatively late compared to many other biological disciplines. Understanding social network structure is of great importance for biologists since the structural characteristics of any network will affect its constituent members and influence a range of diverse behaviours. These include finding and choosing a sexual partner, developing and maintaining cooperative relationships, and engaging in foraging and anti-predator behavior. This novel text provides an overview of the insights that network analysis has provided into major biological processes, and how it has enhanced our understanding of the social organisation of several important taxonomic groups. It brings together researchers from a wide range of disciplines with the aim of providing both an overview of the power of the network approach for understanding patterns and process in animal populations, as well as outlining how current methodological constraints and challenges can be overcome. Animal Social Networks is principally aimed at graduate level students and researchers in the fields of ecology, zoology, animal behaviour, and evolutionary biology but will also be of interest to social scientists.
The Crustacea represents one of the dominant invertebrate groups, displaying staggering diversity in form and function, and spanning the full spectrum of earths environments. This book synthesizes recent advances in understanding the fascinating social and sexual adaptations of crustaceans to these disparate environments, and their broader implications for evolutionary ecology.
|Author||: Corning Peter A|
|Publisher||: World Scientific|
|Release Date||: 2017-12-28|
|ISBN 10||: 9813230959|
|Pages||: 304 pages|
"Nothing about the evolution of biological complexity makes sense except in the light of synergy." Peter Corning's new book is being hailed as a major contribution to what is perhaps the greatest shift in our understanding of evolution since The Origin of Species. It's a tour de force that takes us on a synergy-guided tour of the history of life. As Corning puts it, "life on Earth has been a synergistic phenomenon from the get go." Corning also shows how synergy has been a key to human evolution, including the rise of complex modern societies. "Cooperation may have been the vehicle, but synergy was the driver." As we now face a tipping point and another major transition in evolution, Corning offers us a synergy-based road-map to the future. "One of the great take-home lessons from the epic of evolution is that cooperation produces synergy, and synergy is the way forward. The arc of evolution bends toward synergy." Contents: Explaining Complexity A New View of Evolution How Cooperation Trumps Competition Evolution as a "Combination of Labor" A Tale of Two Theories The Major Transitions in Evolution The Self-Made Man I: Australopithecine Entrepreneurs The Self-Made Man II: From erectus to Homo sapiens The Rise of Complex Societies The Next Major Transition Readership: Undergraduate, graduate students and the general public interested in general science, general life sciences, evolutionary biology, human biology/anthropology/primatology, and public policy. Keywords: Synergy;Cooperation;Complexity;Evolution;Natural Selection;Human Evolution;Major Transitions in Evolution;Cultural Evolution;Multi-Level SelectionReview: "This magnificent book reveals the critical role of synergy in evolution and in all of biology, including especially in humankind. Synergy is fundamental in so many areas of science and knowledge. And in his final chapter, on how to change our current dysfunctional course as a species and avoid the destruction of our planet, Peter Corning offers us a unique and hopeful new vision." Anthony Trewavas, FRS Emeritus Professor, Institute of Molecular Plant Science, University of Edinburgh and author of Plant Behaviour and Intelligence "Peter Corning's approach is wise and he is astonishingly well read. The scope of his excellent book is broad and ambitious, running from the origins of life to modern economics in human societies. Many of his examples are described in clear and fascinating detail ... He writes extremely well and I read every word with great pleasure and interest ... I am full of admiration and strongly recommend it." Sir Patrick Bateson, FRS Emeritus Professor of Biology, Cambridge University president of the Zoological Society of London and the author of (among others) Behaviour, Development and Evolution "This is an important book. It offers a solution to a problem that has been central to evolutionary biology for half a century, with implications that reach down to the foundations of evolutionary theory. Corning argues that the huge and disproportionate advantages that arise when labor is combined could account for the rise of ever higher levels of organization in the history of life. The book is also well written, a pleasure to read." Daniel W McShea Professor of Biology, Duke University and co-author of Biology's First Law "Peter Corning's book is a marvelous addition to the growing literature about the emerging alternative to gene-centric neo-Darwinism in evolutionary biology. We would not exist were it not for the cooperative behaviour of livin
This book explores new methods and techniques for research about merchant networks and maritime routes of trade during the First Global Age through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool to visualize the formation of trading systems, database management, cartography and spatio-temporal analysis in Historical GIS. In doing so, the book focuses on key issues in understanding the birth of the so-called First Global Age (16th to 18th centuries): the integration of spatial economies; the regionalization of markets; the organization of maritime trade routes; and the evolution of self-organizing networks of merchants, producers, communities, and other social agents during the age of expansion. The essays collected here deal with relevant information about historical problems including maritime connections, the organization of oceanic trade and the use of digital cartography and metric analysis of old maps, and social network analysis – commercial networks involved a high level of cooperation and served to move goods and people within a highly open system over an expanding geographic space.
|Author||: Ashbindu Singh|
|Release Date||: 1994|
|Pages||: 380 pages|
Despite wide acceptance that the attributes of living creatures have appeared through a cumulative evolutionary process guided chiefly by natural selection, many human activities have seemed analytically inaccessible through such an approach. Prominent evolutionary biologists, for example, have described morality as contrary to the direction of biological evolution, and moral philosophers rarely regard evolution as relevant to their discussions. The Biology of Moral Systems adopts the position that moral questions arise out of conflicts of interest, and that moral systems are ways of using confluences of interest at lower levels of social organization to deal with conflicts of interest at higher levels. Moral systems are described as systems of indirect reciprocity: humans gain and lose socially and reproductively not only by direct transactions, but also by the reputations they gain from the everyday flow of social interactions. The author develops a general theory of human interests, using senescence and effort theory from biology, to help analyze the patterning of human lifetimes. He argues that the ultimate interests of humans are reproductive, and that the concept of morality has arisen within groups because of its contribution to unity in the context, ultimately, of success in intergroup competition. He contends that morality is not easily relatable to universals, and he carries this argument into a discussion of what he calls the greatest of all moral problems, the nuclear arms race. "Crammed with sage observations on moral dilemmas and many reasons why an understanding of evolution based on natural selection will advance thinking in finding practical solutions to our most difficult social problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social SciencesRichard D. Alexander is Donald Ward Tinkle Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, and Curator of Insects, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. A recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Alexander is the author of Darwinism and Human Affairs.
|Author||: Liza M. Veiga,Adrian A. Barnett,Stephen F. Ferrari,Marilyn A. Norconk|
|Publisher||: Cambridge University Press|
|Release Date||: 2013-04-11|
|ISBN 10||: 1107354684|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
The neotropical primate family Pitheciidae consists of four genera Cacajao (uacaris), Callicebus (titis), Chiropotes (bearded sakis) and Pithecia (sakis), whose 40+ species display a range of sizes, social organisations, ecologies and habitats. Few are well known and the future survival of many is threatened, yet pitheciines have been little studied. This book is the first to review the biology of this fascinating and diverse group in full. It includes fossil history, reviews of the biology of each genus and, among others, specific treatments of vocalisations and foraging ecology. These studies are integrated into considerations of current status and future conservation requirements on a country-by-country basis for each species. A state-of-the-art summary of current knowledge, Evolutionary Biology and Conservation of Titis, Sakis and Uacaris is a collective effort from all the major researchers currently working on these remarkable animals.
Cooperative behaviour has been one of the enigmas of evolutionary theory. This book examines the many facets of cooperative behaviour in primates and humans. It bridges the gap between parallel research in primatology and studies of humans, and highlights both common principles and aspects of human uniqueness, with respect to cooperative behaviour.
|Author||: Shingo Takahashi,David Sallach,Juliette Rouchier|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2008-01-08|
|ISBN 10||: 9784431731672|
|Pages||: 354 pages|
Bringing together diverse approaches to social simulation and research agendas, this book presents a unique collection of contributions from the First World Congress on Social Simulation, held in 2006 in Kyoto, Japan. The work emerged from the collaboration of the Pacific Asian Association for Agent-Based Approach in Social Systems Sciences, the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science, and the European Social Simulation Association.
Ce rapport s'efforce de dissiper les ides fausses qui ont la vie dure en ce qui concerne les maladies cardiovasculaires, les accidents vasculaires crbraux, le cancer et d'autres maladies chroniques et qui ont conduit les dirigeants ne pas se proccuper de cette menace mondiale. En ralit 80% des 35 millions de dcs lis des maladies chroniques qui seront enregistrs cette anne se produiront dans des pays revenu faible ou intermdiaire dans lesquels les hommes et les femmes touchs par ces maladies en meurent plus jeunes que dans les pays revenu lev. Dans les dix prochaines annes, les dcs prmaturs devraient coter des milliards de dollars des pays tels que la Chine, l'Inde et la Fdration de Russie. Mais cette publication donne surtout des conseils pratiques pour rduire la mortalit et amliorer la vie de millions de personnes. Chaque pays quel que soit son niveau de revenu peut accomplir des progrs significatifs dans la prvention et la matrise des maladies chroniques. Une instance dirigeante et des interventions efficaces et peu coteuses peuvent s'avrer suffisantes cet effet.
|Release Date||: 1981|
|Pages||: 329 pages|