Compatibilization of Polymer Blends: Micro and Nano Scale Phase Morphologies, Interphase Characterization and Properties offers a comprehensive approach to the use of compatibilizers in polymer blends, examining both fundamental and advanced knowledge in the field. The book begins by introducing polymer blends, describing thermodynamics, miscibility, and phase separation, and explaining the main concepts of compatibilization. Other sections cover theoretical approaches for nearly compatible blends, incompatible blends, nanofillers, physical compatibilization, reactive compatibilization, morphological and structural characterization, and physico-mechanical characterization. Finally, key application areas are covered, including biomedical applications, packaging and automobile engineering. While this book will be a highly valuable reference source for academics, researchers and postgraduate students interested in polymer blends, it will also be ideal for anyone involved in the fields of polymer science, polymer chemistry, polymer physics, materials science, scientists, R&D professionals, and engineers in involved in the development or engineering of polymer products. Offers detailed and systematic coverage of essential and advanced topics relating to the compatibilization of polymer blends Presents a critical analysis of the effect of compatibilization on morphology and thermal, mechanical, electrical and viscoelastic properties of polymer blends Draws on novel studies and state-of-the-art research, discussing the latest issues and developments
Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.
Nanostructured Immiscible Polymer Blends: Migration and Interface covers a wide range of nanoparticle types, emphasizing the mechanisms and parameters involved in the migration of nanofillers inside immiscible polymer blends. This book explores the influence of nanoparticle migration on the localization, and hence, morphology development, electrical conductivity, and met-rheological properties of blended composite materials. As the influence of solid particles, ranging in size from several hundred nanometers to a few microns in immiscible polymer blends has been extensively studied for use as compatibilizers, morphology stabilizers, and reinforcement agents, this book is a timely resource. Outlines techniques used to prepare nanoparticles-modified immiscible polymer blend composites Explains the structural and morphological development, and melt-state rheological behaviors of nanoparticles-modified immiscible polymer blend composites Discusses major industrial applications
A complete and timely overview of the topic, this Encyclopedia imparts knowledge of fundamental principles and their applications for academicians, scientists and researchers, while informing engineers, industrialists and entrepreneurs of the current state of the technology and its utilization. Each article is uniformly structured for easy navigation, containing the latest research & development and its basic principles and applications, examples of case studies, laboratory and pilot plant experiments, as well as due reference to the published and patented literature.
Physical and chemical bases of compatibilizers and the ways they have been synthesized are described. The book also surveys the application of compatibilization to many blends.Synthetic chemists will use it to define the kind of polymers needed to produce high quality compatibilizers. Materials scientists will use it to design the best composition for a wide variety of applications.
The Polymer Blends Handbook is a fundamental reference work on polymer blends, covering all aspects: science, engineering, technology and application. It will appeal to anyone working in the field of blends, researchers as well as engineers. The Handbook is designed to be the source of information on all aspects of polymer blends. To this end the Editors have put together an international group of highly respected contributors, each an expert in his chosen subjects.
Commercial Polymer Blends is an in depth and unparalleled presentation of the compositions of virtually all polymer blends. Part 1 provides a short history of polymer science and technology. Part 2 summarises the reasons for, and the scientific principles of, blending and presents the current state of knowledge in the fields of interfacial properties, compatibilization, morphology, flow behaviour and performance. The chronological evolution of blend technology is presented in Parts 3 (commodity resin blends) and 4 (engineering and speciality resin blends). The text has practical value in aiding the development of new blends for specific applications. The basic text is then supplemented with four appendices, covering abbreviations, commercial blend names, examples of major blends and a summary list of patents. The text presents a systematic discussion of polymer - polymer blends of commercial interest. Evolution of each blend is traced from the very beginning to the present day, providing a description of how the blends were prepared, what compatibilizers and secondary polymeric components were added, what results were obtained, and why. The text also focuses on special functional blends, such as blends developed for the control of permeability by gases and liquids, electrostatic dissipative or electrically-conductive blends, biodegradable blends and molecular composites. In addition it discusses the recycling of polymers and polymer blends. Commercial Polymer Blends comes complete with a fully searchable PC-compatible database containing comprehensive information on: international abbreviations for polymers and polymer processing; polymer blends discoveries and developments (including year of patent, comments and references for each polymer blend). /LIST.
Polymer Blends, Volume 2 aims to show the importance of mixed polymer systems as a major branch of macromolecular science and provides a broad background of principles and practices in this field. Starting from where the first volume left off, the book covers topics in the area of polymer blends in Chapters 11-23. Areas of coverage include interpenetrating polymer networks; interfacial agents for polymer blends; rubber modification of plastics; fracture phenomena; coextruded multilayer polymer films and sheets; polymeric plasticizers; and polyolefin blends and their applications. The book is recommended for scientists, technologists, and engineers in the academe, research, and related industry, especially those who wish to be updated with its advances as a science.
Distinguishing among blends, alloys and other types of combinations, clarifying terminology and presenting data on new processes and materials, this work present up-to-date and effective compounding techniques for polymers. It offers extensive analyses on the challenging questions that surround miscibility, compatibility, dynamic processing, interaction/phase behaviour, and computer simulations for predicting behaviours of polymer mixture and interaction.
Over 30% of commercial polymers are blends or alloys or one kind or another. Nanostructured blends offer the scientist or plastics engineer a new range of possibilities with characteristics including thermodynamic stablility; the potential to improve material transparency, creep and solvent resistance; the potential to simultaneously increase tensile strength and ductility; superior rheological properties; and relatively low cost. Nanostructured Polymer Blends opens up immense structural possibilities via chemical and mechanical modifications that generate novel properties and functions and high-performance characteristics at a low cost. The emerging applications of these new materials cover a wide range of industry sectors, encompassing the coatings and adhesives industry, electronics, energy (photovoltaics), aerospace and medical devices (where polymer blends provide innovations in biocompatible materials). This book explains the science of nanostructure formation and the nature of interphase formations, demystifies the design of nanostructured blends to achieve specific properties, and introduces the applications for this important new class of nanomaterial. All the key topics related to recent advances in blends are covered: IPNs, phase morphologies, composites and nanocomposites, nanostructure formation, the chemistry and structure of additives, etc. Introduces the science and technology of nanostructured polymer blends – and the procedures involved in melt blending and chemical blending to produce new materials with specific performance characteristics Unlocks the potential of nanostructured polymer blends for applications across sectors, including electronics, energy/photovoltaics, aerospace/automotive, and medical devices (biocompatible polymers) Explains the performance benefits in areas including rheological properties, thermodynamic stablility, material transparency, solvent resistance, etc.
This first comprehensive overview of reactive extrusion technology for over a decade combines the views of contributors from both academia and industry who share their experiences and highlight possible applications and markets. They also provide updated information on the underlying chemical and physical concepts, summarizing recent developments in terms of the material and machinery used. As a result, readers will find here a compilation of potential applications for reactive extrusion to access new and cost-effective polymeric materials, while using existing compounding machines.
Thermodynamics is an indispensable tool for developing a large and growing fraction of new polymers and polymer blends. These two volumes show the researcher how thermodynamics can be used to rank polymer pairs in order of immiscibility, including the search for suitable chemical structure of compatibilizers. Because of the great current commercial interest in this most dynamic sector of the polymer industry, there is high interest in studying their physical and mechanical properties, their structures, and the processes of their formation and manufacture. These Books are dedicated to Analysis of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends. Thermodynamic behavior of blends determines the compatibility of the components, their morphological features, rheological behavior, and microphase structures. As a result, the most important physical and mechanical characteristics of blends can be identified. The information in these two volumes will be useful to all those involved in polymer research, development, analysis and advanced process engineering.