Risk communication is crucial to building community resilience and reducing risk from extreme events. True community resilience involves accurate and timely dissemination of risk information to stakeholders. This book examines the policy and science of risk communication in the digital era. Themes include public awareness of risk and public participation in risk communication and resilience building. The first half of the book focuses on conceptual frameworks, components, and the role of citizens in risk communication. The second half examines the role of risk communication in resilience building and provides an overview of some of its challenges in the era of social media. This book looks at the effectiveness of risk communication in socially and culturally diverse communities in the developed and developing world. The interdisciplinary approach bridges academic research and applied policy action. Contributions from Latin America and Asia provide insight into global risk communication at a time when digital technologies have rapidly transformed conventional communication approaches. This book will be of critical interest to policy makers, academicians, and researchers, and will be a valuable reference source for university courses that focus on emergency management, risk communication, and resilience.
A myriad of models are available to guide practice before, during, and following disasters. As emphasized in this book, we value the role of research in informing our assessment, education, and intervention efforts in this area. Keeping an eye on those elements that have research backing certainly assists with quality control generally. However, more specifically, we also stress the idea that there is evidence to support a role for hope and positive expectations in the motivation and engagement process. In addition, the more that people, including youth and adults, actively participate in efforts designed to help, the more benefits they tend to receive. The role of research in providing that initial hope and inspiring more active engagement with internal and external resources before, during, and after a disaster is part of the foundation of our practice in this area. In fact, in the clinical psychology training program directed by the senior author, the idea that we attempt to inculcate with our trainees is the idea of “hope and engagement on an evidence-based foundation.” Consequently, we do advocate for models of practice that have identified “active ingredients” that are included: those particularly identified through controlled evaluation research. However, it is also the case that a number of risk and protective factors identified through a number of studies (e.g., see Chapter 2) have as yet to be systematically included.
National and global efforts have failed to stop climate change, transition from fossil fuels, and reduce inequality. We must now confront these and other increasingly complex problems by building resilience at the community level. The Community Resilience Reader combines a fresh look at the challenges humanity faces in the 21st century, the essential tools of resilience science, and the wisdom of activists, scholars, and analysts working on the ground to present a new vision for creating resilience. It shows that resilience is a process, not a goal; how it requires learning to adapt but also preparing to transform; and that it starts and ends with the people living in a community. From Post Carbon Institute, the producers of the award-winning The Post Carbon Reader, The Community Resilience Reader is a valuable resource for community leaders, college students, and concerned citizens.
Told through the voices of local community leaders, this book analyzes how communities respond to natural disasters and how outsiders contribute positively - or negatively - to their response, promoting debate on the role of aid and the media in times of crisis.
How can we plan and design stronger communities? From New Orleans to Galveston to the Jersey Shore, communities struck by natural disasters struggle to recover long after the first responders have left. Globally, the average annual number of natural disasters has more than doubled since 1980. These catastrophes are increasing in number as well as in magnitude, causing greater damage as we experience rising sea levels and other effects of climate change. Communities can reduce their vulnerability to disaster by becoming more resilient—to not only bounce back more readily from disasters but to grow stronger, more socially cohesive, and more environmentally responsible. To be truly resilient, disaster preparation and response must consider all populations in the community. By bringing together natural hazards planning and community planning to consider vulnerabilities, more resilient and equitable communities are achievable. In Planning for Community Resilience the authors describe an inclusive process for creating disaster-resilient communities. Based on their recovery work after Hurricane Ike in Galveston, Texas, they developed a process that relies on the Disaster Impacts Model. This handbook guides any community through the process of determining their level of hazard exposure, physical vulnerability, and social vulnerability with the goal of determining the best planning strategy. Planning for Community Resilience will be invaluable to professionals working to protect their community from disturbance, including city planners, elected officials, floodplain managers, natural hazard managers, planning commissioners, local business leaders, and citizen organizers.
Provides a roadmap for federal, state, and local leaders who are developing plans to enhance community resilience for health security threats and describes options for building community resilience in key areas.
Using the Mississippi Gulf Coast as a case study, this book focuses on the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and develops the concept of resilience and how it applies to Homeland Security in the aftermath of the worst natural disaster to hit the United States. Through the lens of the national response to Hurricane Katrina and the local lens of the recovery of the Mississippi Gulf Coast community, this work elucidates the particular qualities that make a community and a nation more resilient, discussing resilience as a concept and an application. Additionally, it explores in-depth the interconnected fields that comprise resilience; including economic, social, infrastructure, and political domains. By examining what went right, what went wrong, and what can be improved upon during the Mississippi Gulf Coast's recovery, scholars and policymakers can better understand community resilience not just as a concept, but also as a practice.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering,Committee on Integrating Dam and Levee Safety and Community Resilience|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2012-10-11|
|ISBN 10||: 0309256143|
|Pages||: 172 pages|
Although advances in engineering can reduce the risk of dam and levee failure, some failures will still occur. Such events cause impacts on social and physical infrastructure that extend far beyond the flood zone. Broadening dam and levee safety programs to consider community- and regional-level priorities in decision making can help reduce the risk of, and increase community resilience to, potential dam and levee failures. Collaboration between dam and levee safety professionals at all levels, persons and property owners at direct risk, members of the wider economy, and the social and environmental networks in a community would allow all stakeholders to understand risks, shared needs, and opportunities, and make more informed decisions related to dam and levee infrastructure and community resilience. Dam and Levee Safety and Community Resilience: A Vision for Future Practice explains that fundamental shifts in safety culture will be necessary to integrate the concepts of resilience into dam and levee safety programs.
|Author||: Geoff Wilson|
|Release Date||: 2012-03-12|
|ISBN 10||: 1136504524|
|Pages||: 240 pages|
This book discusses the resilience of communities in both developed and developing world contexts. It investigates the notion of ‘resilience’ and the challenges faced by local communities around the world to deal with disturbances (natural hazards or human-made) that may threaten their long-term survival. Using global examples, specific emphasis is placed on how learning processes, traditions, policies and politics affect the resilience of communities and what constraints and opportunities exist for communities to raise resilience levels.
|Author||: W. Madsen,L. Costigan,S. McNicol,Roland Turner|
|Release Date||: 2016-06-01|
|ISBN 10||: 1137481056|
|Pages||: 99 pages|
The increasing development of partnerships between universities and communities allows the research of academics to become engaged with those around them. This book highlights several case studies from a range of disciplines, such as psychology, social work and education to explore how these mutually beneficial relationships function.
|Author||: Ami C. Carpenter|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2013-10-04|
|ISBN 10||: 1461488125|
|Pages||: 156 pages|
The recent conflict in Iraq evolved from an insurgency against the interim U.S. led government (the Coalition Provisional Authority or CPA) into a sectarian civil war. Violence became widespread, especially in areas of Baghdad City such as Sadr City, Al Amiriyah, and Al Adhamiya. However, a number of multiethnic neighborhoods in Baghdad successfully prevented sectarian attitudes and behaviors from taking hold. Four communities stand out in their self-organization to prevent the escalation of violence. This book looks at what makes these communities different from other areas within Baghdad. In-depth interviews in Sunni-dominant, Shia-dominant and Mixed neighborhoods generated a few key insights about conflict-resilience, or the capacity to prevent structural changes associated with conflict escalation. Key factors turned out to be the organization of non-sectarian self-defense groups, place attachment, collective efficacy, active intervention to de-escalate tensions, and also the presence of local religious leaders who forbid sectarian attacks. The continuity or strength of interpersonal relationships supported by the integrated physical structure of these neighborhoods and internal versus tribal conflict resolution mechanisms played a role as well. This volume examines the characteristics of the communities that have successfully prevented the rise of violence, and how they are able to maintain qualities of resilience to violent conflict.
This book encompasses discussions between Kathryn Gow and Douglas Paton, both psychologists who have researched stress, burnout, trauma, and recovery in natural disasters. They suggest that few books have been written for health professionals, and persons directly involved with leading and managing emergency teams on what constitutes resilience in individuals and groups in communities, and how they differ in response and recovery. The outcome is a three part book with contributors from the field, research institutions, emergency service sectors, support agencies and the media. Its main purpose is to focus on the resilience of people and communities following NDs and to educate the sectors already involved in natural disasters.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Geographical Sciences Committee,Committee on Private-Public Sector Collaboration to Enhance Community Disaster Resilience|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2011-03-17|
|ISBN 10||: 0309162637|
|Pages||: 142 pages|
Natural disasters--including hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and floods--caused more than 220,000 deaths worldwide in the first half of 2010 and wreaked havoc on homes, buildings, and the environment. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential that citizens and communities work together to anticipate threats, limit their effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. Increasing evidence indicates that collaboration between the private and public sectors could improve the ability of a community to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Several previous National Research Council reports have identified specific examples of the private and public sectors working cooperatively to reduce the effects of a disaster by implementing building codes, retrofitting buildings, improving community education, or issuing extreme-weather warnings. State and federal governments have acknowledged the importance of collaboration between private and public organizations to develop planning for disaster preparedness and response. Despite growing ad hoc experience across the country, there is currently no comprehensive framework to guide private-public collaboration focused on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. Building Community Disaster Resilience through Private-Public Collaboration assesses the current state of private-public sector collaboration dedicated to strengthening community resilience, identifies gaps in knowledge and practice, and recommends research that could be targeted for investment. Specifically, the book finds that local-level private-public collaboration is essential to the development of community resilience. Sustainable and effective resilience-focused private-public collaboration is dependent on several basic principles that increase communication among all sectors of the community, incorporate flexibility into collaborative networks, and encourage regular reassessment of collaborative missions, goals, and practices.
Events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Japanese earthquakes and tsunamis in 2011 have provided unfortunate reminders of the susceptibility of many communities to devastating losses from natural hazards. These events provided graphic illustrations of how extreme hazard events adversely impact on people, affect communities and disrupt the community and societal mechanisms that serve to organize and sustain community capacities and functions. However, there is much that communities can do to mitigate their risk and manage disaster consequences. The construct that epitomizes how this is done is resilience. The contents of this volume provide valuable insights into how societal resilience can be developed and sustained. This considerably expanded new edition presents major topics of: Coexisting with Natural Hazards; Urban Resilience in Asia; Lifelines and Urban Resilience; Business Continuity in Disaster; Hazard Mitigation in Communities; Hazard Readiness and Resilience; Child Citizenship in Disaster Risk; Old Age and Resilience; Gender and Disaster Resilience; Impact of High Functionality on Resilience; Art and Resilience; Cross-Cultural Perspectives and Coping with Hazards; Religious Practices and Resilience; Living in Harmony with our Environment; Critical Incidence Response; Governance; Heat Wave Resilience; Wildfire Disaster Resilience; and Progress and Challenges to Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience. This exceptional book brings together contributions from international experts in core areas and includes chapters that provide and overarching framework within which the need for interrelationships between levels to be developed is discussed. The book will be an outstanding resource for those researching or teaching courses in emergency management, disaster management, community development, environmental planning and urban development. In addition, it will serve law enforcement and emergency agencies, welfare agencies, and professionals in applied psychology.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2009-07-23|
|ISBN 10||: 9780309142335|
|Pages||: 80 pages|
Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council, at the request of the Department of Homeland Security, held a two-day workshop on the use of SNA for the purpose of building community disaster resilience. The workshop, summarized in this volume, was designed to provide guidance to the DHS on a potential research agenda that would increase the effectiveness of SNA for improving community disaster resilience. The workshop explored the state of the art in SNA and its applications in the identification, construction, and strengthening of networks within U.S. communities. Workshop participants discussed current work in SNA focused on characterizing networks; the theories, principles and research applicable to the design or strengthening of networks; the gaps in knowledge that prevent the application of SNA to the construction of networks; and research areas that could fill those gaps. Elements of a research agenda to support the design, development, and implementation of social networks for the specific purpose of strengthening community resilience against natural and human-made disasters were discussed.
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Geographical Science Committee,Committee on Private-Public Sector Collaboration to Enhance Community Disaster Resilience|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2010-03-23|
|ISBN 10||: 0309151066|
|Pages||: 86 pages|
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) on the United States prompted a rethinking of how the United States prepares for disasters. Federal policy documents written since 9/11 have stressed that the private and public sectors share equal responsibility for the security of the nation's critical infrastructure and key assets. Private sector entities have a role in the safety, security, and resilience of the communities in which they operate. Incentivizing the private sector to expend resources on community efforts remains challenging. Disasters in the United States since 9/11 (e.g., Hurricane Katrina in 2005) indicate that the nation has not yet been successful in making its communities resilient to disaster. In this book, the National Research Council assesses the current states of the art and practice in private-public sector collaboration dedicated to strengthening community disaster resilience.
Resilience is a community's ability to withstand and quickly recover from disasters and other hazardous events. This comprehensive guide to community resilience for state and local officials, disaster relief organizations, and concerned attorneys and community members encapsulates the ABA's commitment to promoting community resilience as set forth in Resolution 108, which is included as an appendix.
|Author||: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Resilient America Roundtable,Committee on Measures of Community Resilience: From Lessons Learned to Lessons Applied|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-03-26|
|ISBN 10||: 0309347416|
|Pages||: 49 pages|
The 2012 National Research Council report Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative highlighted the challenges of increasing national resilience in the United States. One finding of the report was that "without numerical means of assessing resilience, it would be impossible to identify the priority needs for improvement, to monitor changes, to show that resilience had improved, or to compare the benefits of increasing resilience with the associated costs." Although measuring resilience is a challenge, metrics and indicators to evaluate progress, and the data necessary to establish the metric, are critical for helping communities to clarify and formalize what the concept of resilience means for them, and to support efforts to develop and prioritize resilience investments. One of the recommendations from the 2012 report stated that government entities at federal, state, and local levels and professional organizations should partner to help develop a framework for communities to adapt to their circumstances and begin to track their progress toward increasing resilience. To build upon this recommendation and begin to help communities formulate such a framework, the Resilient America Roundtable of the National Academies convened the workshop Measures of Community Resilience: From Lessons Learned to Lessons Applied on September 5, 2014 in Washington, D.C. The workshop's overarching objective was to begin to develop a framework of measures and indicators that could support community efforts to increase their resilience. The framework will be further developed through feedback and testing in pilot and other partner communities that are working with the Resilient America Roundtable. This report is a summary of the one-day workshop, which consisted of a keynote address and two panel sessions in the morning and afternoon breakout sessions that began the discussion on how to develop a framework of resilience measures.
|Author||: Emma Argiroff|
|Release Date||: 2018|
|Pages||: 86 pages|
King County, Washington is challenged by a variety of potential shocks, such as earthquakes, and stresses, such as rising income inequality and climate change. It is therefore essential to strengthen community resilience. Community resilience refers to the ability of communities to work together to proactively limit risk and stress, and adapt to changing circumstances. In order to develop and implement effective resilience programs, there should be agreement on how to simplify this concept into components, or dimensions, and measure these dimensions with indicators. However, there is no strict consensus in the literature about which dimensions are most important and which indicators are most effective at measuring resilience. Through this research, I aim to identify the most valued community resilience dimensions and indicators for King County, and understand how resilience perceptions change based on race, gender, and professional sector. I collected data with a survey that asks respondents who live and/or work in King County to rank resilience dimensions on a Likert scale of importance, select important indicators for measuring resilience, and provide demographic information. I found that all community resilience dimensions were either highly or most valued. This supports that a multi-pronged approach to building resilience is most effective, rather than one that focuses on a single dimension. I found that the most valued indicators were those that are fundamentally important, such as drinking water reliability. The majority of indicators derived from the Seattle Resilience Strategy were highly valued instead of most valued. The least valued indicators concerned demographics, such as high English-language competency. Although resilience literature generally argues that demographic indicators are important for assessing resilience, there is no ethical or practical program that would seek to limit diversity. My findings support that perceptions change depending on professional sector, race, and gender, but further research is needed to assess perceptions, as my response was not diverse or controlled for each demographic. This knowledge is important for implementing equity-based resilience strategies that seek to strengthen resilience for underserved populations.
|Author||: National Academies,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,Committee on Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2012-12-29|
|ISBN 10||: 0309261503|
|Pages||: 260 pages|
No person or place is immune from disasters or disaster-related losses. Infectious disease outbreaks, acts of terrorism, social unrest, or financial disasters in addition to natural hazards can all lead to large-scale consequences for the nation and its communities. Communities and the nation thus face difficult fiscal, social, cultural, and environmental choices about the best ways to ensure basic security and quality of life against hazards, deliberate attacks, and disasters. Beyond the unquantifiable costs of injury and loss of life from disasters, statistics for 2011 alone indicate economic damages from natural disasters in the United States exceeded $55 billion, with 14 events costing more than a billion dollars in damages each. One way to reduce the impacts of disasters on the nation and its communities is to invest in enhancing resilience--the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative addresses the broad issue of increasing the nation's resilience to disasters. This book defines "national resilience", describes the state of knowledge about resilience to hazards and disasters, and frames the main issues related to increasing resilience in the United States. It also provide goals, baseline conditions, or performance metrics for national resilience and outlines additional information, data, gaps, and/or obstacles that need to be addressed to increase the nation's resilience to disasters. Additionally, the book's authoring committee makes recommendations about the necessary approaches to elevate national resilience to disasters in the United States. Enhanced resilience allows better anticipation of disasters and better planning to reduce disaster losses-rather than waiting for an event to occur and paying for it afterward. Disaster Resilience confronts the topic of how to increase the nation's resilience to disasters through a vision of the characteristics of a resilient nation in the year 2030. Increasing disaster resilience is an imperative that requires the collective will of the nation and its communities. Although disasters will continue to occur, actions that move the nation from reactive approaches to disasters to a proactive stance where communities actively engage in enhancing resilience will reduce many of the broad societal and economic burdens that disasters can cause.