coastal and marine hazards risks and disasters

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Coastal and Marine Hazards, Risks, and Disasters
Author : Jean Ellis,Douglas J. Sherman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-11-11
ISBN 10 : 0123965381
Pages : 592 pages

Sea and Ocean Hazards, Risks and Disasters provides a scientific approach to those hazards and disasters related to the Earth's coasts and oceans. This is the first book to integrate scientific, social, and economic issues related to disasters such as hazard identification, risk analysis, and planning, relevant hazard process mechanics, discussions of preparedness, response, and recovery, and the economics of loss and remediation. Throughout the book cases studies are presented of historically relevant hazards and disasters as well as the many recent catastrophes. Contains contributions from experts in the field selected by a world-renowned editorial board Cutting-edge discussion of natural hazard topics that affect the lives and livelihoods of millions of humans worldwide Numerous full-color tables, GIS maps, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs of hazardous processes in action will be included

Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks, and Disasters
Author : Wilfried Haeberli,Colin Whiteman
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-10-27
ISBN 10 : 0123964733
Pages : 812 pages

Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks, and Disasters provides you with the latest scientific developments in glacier surges and melting, ice shelf collapses, paleo-climate reconstruction, sea level rise, climate change implications, causality, impacts, preparedness, and mitigation. It takes a geo-scientific approach to the topic while also covering current thinking about directly related social scientific issues that can adversely affect ecosystems and global economies. Puts the contributions from expert oceanographers, geologists, geophysicists, environmental scientists, and climatologists selected by a world-renowned editorial board in your hands Presents the latest research on causality, glacial surges, ice-shelf collapses, sea level rise, climate change implications, and more Numerous tables, maps, diagrams, illustrations and photographs of hazardous processes will be included Features new insights into the implications of climate change on increased melting, collapsing, flooding, methane emissions, and sea level rise

Landslide Hazards, Risks, and Disasters
Author : Tim Davies
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-10-23
ISBN 10 : 012396475X
Pages : 492 pages

Landslides are the most costly geo-hazard in the world, and they’re often the cause or the result of other hazards and disasters such as tsunamis, earthquakes, wildfires, and volcanic eruptions. Landslide Hazards, Risks, and Disasters makes a close and detailed examination of major mass movements and provides measures for more thorough and accurate monitoring, prediction, preparedness, and prevention. It takes a geoscientific approach to the topic while also discussing the impacts human-induced causes such as deforestation, blasting, and building construction—underscoring the multi-disciplinary nature of the topic. Contains contributions from expert geologists, seismologists, geophysicists, and environmental scientists selected by a world-renowned editorial board Presents the latest research on causality, economic impacts, fatality rates, and landslide and problem soil preparedness and mitigation Numerous tables, maps, diagrams, illustrations, photographs, and video captures of hazardous processes Discusses steps for prevention and treatment of problem soils, the most expensive geo-hazard in the world

From Monsoons to Microbes
Author : National Research Council,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Ocean's Role in Human Health
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1999-05-05
ISBN 10 : 9780309173421
Pages : 144 pages

What can sharks teach us about our immune system? What can horseshoe crabs show us about eyesight? The more we learn about the ocean, the more we realize how critical these vast bodies of water are to our health and well-being. Sometimes the ocean helps us, as when a marine organism yields a new medical treatment. At other times, the ocean poses the threat of coastal storm surges or toxic algal blooms. From Monsoons to Microbes offers a deeper look into the oceans that surround us, often nurturing yet sometimes harming humankind. This book explores the links among physical oceanography, public health, epidemiology, marine biology, and medicine in understanding what the ocean has to offer. It will help readers grasp such important points as: How the ocean's sweeping physical processes create long-term phenomena such as El Nino and short-term disastrous events such as tsunamis--including what communities can do to prepare. What medicines and nutritional products have come from the ocean and what the prospects are for more such discoveries. How estuaries work--where salt and fresh water meet--and what can go wrong, as in the 7,000 square mile "dead zone" at the out-flow of the Mississippi River. How the growing demand for seafood and the expansion of ocean-going transport has increased our exposure to infectious agents--and how these agents can be tracked down and fought. Why "red tides" of toxic algae suddenly appear in previously unaffected coastal areas, and what happens when algal toxins find their way into our food supply or the air we breathe. The book recommends ways we can implement exciting new technologies to monitor the physics, chemistry, and biology of the ocean to recognize change as it happens. From the impact of worldwide atmospheric warming to the significance of exotic bacteria from submarine hydrothermal vents, the ocean has many depths left to explore.

Coastal Hazards
Author : Charles W. Finkl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-11
ISBN 10 : 9400752342
Pages : 840 pages

This book covers the gamut of coastal hazards that result from short-term low-frequency events and have high-magnitude and far-reaching impacts on coastal zones the world over. Much of the world’s population now lives in low-lying coastal zones that are inherently vulnerable to natural hazards such as flooding from hurricanes, tropical storms and northeastern storm surges; shoreline (beach and dune) erosion; cliff and bluff failures; and saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers used for drinking water supplies. In addition to the usual range of hydrometeorological disasters in coastal zones, this book covers tsunami impacts and warning systems as well as global perspectives of sea-level rise impacts and human perceptions of potential vulnerabilities resulting from rip currents that cause many drownings each year on beaches. Today, the use of numerical models that help predict vulnerabilities and provide a basis for shore protection measures is important in modern scientific and engineering systems. Final considerations focus on human actions in the form of the urbanization and industrialization of the coast, shore protection measures, and indicate how environmental degradation around coastal conurbations exacerbates the potential for unwanted impacts. Strategies for environmental management in coastal zones, from low-lying wetlands to high cliffs and rocky promontories, are highlighted as a means of living in harmony with Nature and not trying to conquer it.

Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters
Author : Paolo Paron,Giuliano Di Baldassarre
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-10-28
ISBN 10 : 0123964709
Pages : 312 pages

Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters provides an integrated look at major atmospheric disasters that have had and continue to have major implications for many of the world’s people, such as floods and droughts. . This volume takes a geoscientific approach to the topic, while also covering current thinking about some directly relevant social scientific issues that can affect lives and property. Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Risks, and Disasters also contains new insights about how climate change affects hazardous processes. For the first time, information on the many diverse topics relevant to professionals is aggregated into one volume. Contains contributions from experts in the field selected by a world-renowned editorial board Cutting-edge discussion of natural hazard topics that affect the lives and livelihoods of millions of humans worldwide Numerous full-color tables, GIS maps, diagrams, illustrations, and photographs of hazardous processes in action

Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts
Author : Committee on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Science, Engineering, and Planning: Coastal Risk Reduction,Water Science and Technology Board,Ocean Studies Board,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher : National Academy Press
Release Date : 2014-11-10
ISBN 10 : 9780309305860
Pages : 208 pages

Hurricane- and coastal-storm-related losses have increased substantially during the past century, largely due to increases in population and development in the most susceptible coastal areas. Climate change poses additional threats to coastal communities from sea level rise and possible increases in strength of the largest hurricanes. Several large cities in the United States have extensive assets at risk to coastal storms, along with countless smaller cities and developed areas. The devastation from Superstorm Sandy has heightened the nation's awareness of these vulnerabilities. What can we do to better prepare for and respond to the increasing risks of loss? "Reducing Coastal Risk on the East and Gulf Coasts" reviews the coastal risk-reduction strategies and levels of protection that have been used along the United States East and Gulf Coasts to reduce the impacts of coastal flooding associated with storm surges. This report evaluates their effectiveness in terms of economic return, protection of life safety, and minimization of environmental effects. According to this report, the vast majority of the funding for coastal risk-related issues is provided only after a disaster occurs. This report calls for the development of a national vision for coastal risk management that includes a long-term view, regional solutions, and recognition of the full array of economic, social, environmental, and life-safety benefits that come from risk reduction efforts. To support this vision, "Reducing Coastal Risk" states that a national coastal risk assessment is needed to identify those areas with the greatest risks that are high priorities for risk reduction efforts. The report discusses the implications of expanding the extent and levels of coastal storm surge protection in terms of operation and maintenance costs and the availability of resources. "Reducing Coastal Risk" recommends that benefit-cost analysis, constrained by acceptable risk criteria and other important environmental and social factors, be used as a framework for evaluating national investments in coastal risk reduction. The recommendations of this report will assist engineers, planners and policy makers at national, regional, state, and local levels to move from a nation that is primarily reactive to coastal disasters to one that invests wisely in coastal risk reduction and builds resilience among coastal communities.

Development in Coastal Zones and Disaster Management
Author : Amita Singh,R. Lalitha S. Fernando,Nivedita P. Haran
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-11-14
ISBN 10 : 9811542945
Pages : 339 pages

In the last two decades, coastal regions have relatively endured some of the fiercest oceanic and geophysical disasters than the earlier decades. Yet, disaster management governance fails to match the human, nonhuman and environmental calamity which is unfolding in its most frequent and unpredictable pattern. Between the Asian Tsunami of 2004 to the devastating Chennai and Kerala floods of 2018 the socio-industrial-livelihood impact alerts governments towards a greater and more serious compliance to laws for coastal conservation. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) in 2018 had shocking statistics to share as the deaths and damages related to only Tsunami disaster at the coasts to 251,770 and US$280 billions respectively in the last 20 years (1998-2017) as compared to 998 and US$ 2.7 billion in the previous 20 years (1978-1997). Coastal conservation is no more a question of casual governance but has become a need for survival. The region of South Asia which ranks much higher in its vulnerability, weak resilience and relatively undersupplied governance structures ought to take this responsibility on a priority. The spirit of Hyogu Declaration and the Sendai Framework for Action suggests preparedness and resilience building as key approach areas in coastal governance. The book is incomparable in its holistic and transdisciplinary social science based approach to disaster management which links conservation of marine flora and fauna, ecosystems and land management with decision making processes and coastal regulations. These grass root findings from the subcontinent are substantiated by a section on the most powerful court battle on the Kerala Floods as a guideline for readers to discerningly identify an ‘Act of God’ often used as a veil to hide lack of preparedness, apathy and political greed. This book becomes indispensable reading for anyone involved in research, administration or any level of decision making for the mitigation and prevention of disasters.

Natural Hazards
Author : José Simão Antunes Do Carmo
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-12-12
ISBN 10 : 1789848202
Pages : 180 pages

This book addresses different aspects of natural hazards and vulnerabilities, with a focus on prevention and protection. It consists of nine chapters, five on flood events addressing vulnerabilities, risk assessments, impacts, sensitivity analyses, and mitigation measures, two on climate change and reconstruction of natural hazard events such as avalanches and rockslides, and two on tsunamis and volcanoes. All chapters provide relevant information and useful elements for readers interested and concerned about the lack of action or its ineffectiveness in containing the vulnerabilities and risks of possible natural hazards worldwide.

Land-Based and Marine Hazards
Author : Mohammed I. El-Sabh,Srinivasan Venkatesh,H. Denis,Tad S. Murty
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 9400902735
Pages : 303 pages

Causes of major disasters are many and diverse, and the risks associated with them endanger human lives, property, the environment, the economy, and even the country's political and social well-being. It is clear that, with rapid population growth, environmental degradation, climate change, poorly regulated industries, and continued economic uncertainty, the chances are that communities may become more vulnerable to disasters. The dramatic losses in recent years from volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and landslides, wildland fires, droughts and floods, cyclones and storm surges attest to the fact that we are still a long way from applying even the knowledge we have today to make communities safe. Tackling this problem requires a sound evaluation of disaster mitigation policies and tools. As a contribution to the International Decade for Natural Disasters Reduction (IDNDR), the fifth international symposium HAZARDS-93 was held in Qingdao, P.R. China on 29 August - 3 September, 1993. China is a country frequently hit by almost all kinds of disasters. Its history is one of combating natural disasters and working towards their reduction. More than 250 scientists, engineers and government officials from 20 countries met for the purpose of engaging in a free exchange of knowledge, experience and ideas regarding the scientific and socio-economic aspects of mitigating losses from natural and man- made disasters. A total of 180 papers were presented at 28 sessions covering a very broad range of topics related to disaster management. The twenty-one articles included in this book deal with the scientific and management issues of land-based and marine hazards which cause the most severe economic losses, deaths and environmental degradation in many parts of the world. The book also includes specific recommendations addressed to the IDNDR Secretariat, national governments and scientific experts to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of disaster management. Thus, Land-Based and Marine Hazards: Scientific and Management Issues forms an excellent reference for scientists, engineers, policy-makers and the insurance industry.

Modeling Coastal Hypoxia
Author : Dubravko Justic,Kenneth A. Rose,Robert D. Hetland,Katja Fennel
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-05-03
ISBN 10 : 331954571X
Pages : 433 pages

This book provides a snapshot of representative modeling analyses of coastal hypoxia and its effects. Hypoxia refers to conditions in the water column where dissolved oxygen falls below levels that can support most metazoan marine life (i.e., 2 mg O2 l-1). The number of hypoxic zones has been increasing at an exponential rate since the 1960s; there are currently more than 600 documented hypoxic zones in the estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. Hypoxia develops as a synergistic product of many physical and biological factors that affect the balance of dissolved oxygen in seawater, including temperature, solar radiation, wind, freshwater discharge, nutrient supply, and the production and decay of organic matter. A number of modeling approaches have been increasingly used in hypoxia research, along with the more traditional observational and experimental studies. Modeling is necessary because of rapidly changing coastal circulation and stratification patterns that affect hypoxia, the large spatial extent over which hypoxia develops, and limitations on our capabilities to directly measure hypoxia over large spatial and temporal scales. This book consists of 15 chapters that are broadly organized around three main topics: (1) Modeling of the physical controls on hypoxia, (2) Modeling of biogeochemical controls and feedbacks, and, (3) Modeling of the ecological effects of hypoxia. The final chapter is a synthesis chapter that draws generalities from the earlier chapters, highlights strengths and weaknesses of the current state-of-the-art modeling, and offers recommendations on future directions.

Coastal Risk Assessment
Author : Ansar Khan,Soumendu Chatterjee
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-03-22
ISBN 10 : 331969992X
Pages : 86 pages

This book discusses how to collect data and analyze databases in order to map risk zones, and contributes to developing a conceptual framework for coastal risk assessment. Further, the book primarily focuses on a specific case study: the Bay of Bengal along the southeastern coast of India. The dramatic rise in losses and casualties due to natural disasters like wind, storm-surge-induced flooding, seismic hazards and tsunami incidence along this coast over the past few decades has prompted a major national scientific initiative investigating the probable causes and possible mitigation strategies. As such, geoscientists are called upon to analyze the coastal hazards by anticipating the changes in and impacts of extreme weather hazards on the Bay of Bengal coasts as a result of global climate change and local sea-level change.