This unique handbook presents both the theory and application of biomass combustion and co-firing, from basic principles to industrial combustion and environmental impact, in a clear and comprehensive manner. It offers a solid grounding on biomass combustion, and advice on improving combustion systems.Written by leading international academics and industrial experts, and prepared under the auspices of the IEA Bioenergy Implementing Agreement, the handbook is an essential resource for anyone interested in biomass combustion and co-firing technologies varying from domestic woodstoves to utility-scale power generation. The book covers subjects including biomass fuel pre-treatment and logistics, modelling the combustion process and ash-related issues, as well as featuring an overview of the current R&D needs regarding biomass combustion.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been considered as a practical way in sequestering the huge anthropogenic CO2 amount with a reasonable cost until a more pragmatic solution appears. The CCS can work as a bridge before fulfilling the no-CO2 era of the future by applying to large-scale CO2 emitting facilities. But CCS appears to lose some passion by the lack of progress in technical developments and in commercial success stories other than EOR. This is the time to go back to basics, starting from finding a solution in small steps. The CCS technology desperately needs far newer ideas and breakthroughs that can overcome earlier attempts through improving, modifying, and switching the known principles. This book tries to give some insight into developing an urgently needed technical breakthrough through the recent advances in CCS research, in addition to the available small steps like soil carbon sequestration. This book provides the fundamental and practical information for researchers and graduate students who want to review the current technical status and to bring in new ideas to the conventional CCS technologies.
Create affordable solid fuel blends that will burn efficiently while reducing the carbon footprint. Solid Fuel Blending Handbook: Principles, Practices, and Problems describes a new generation of solid fuel blending processes. The book includes discussions on such topics as flame structure and combustion performance, boiler efficiency, capacity as influenced by flue gas volume and temperature, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and emissions. Attention is given to the major types of combustion systems including stokers, pulverized coal, cyclone, and fluidized bed boilers. Specific topics considered include chlorine in one or more coals, alkali metals (e.g., K, Na) and alkali earth elements, and related topics. Coals of consideration include Appalachian, Interior Province, and Western bituminous coals; Powder River Basin (PRB) and other subbituminous coals; Fort Union and Gulf Coast lignites, and many of the off-shore coals (e.g., Adaro coal, an Indonesian subbituminous coal with very low sulfur; other off-shore coals from Germany, Poland, Australia, South Africa, Columbia, and more). Interactions between fuels and the potential for blends to be different from the parent coals will be a critical focus of this of the book. One stop source to solid fuel types and blending processes Evaluate combustion systems and calculate their efficiency Recognize the interactions between fuels and their potential energy output Be aware of the Environmental Aspects of Fuel Blending
Fossil fuels are widely used for electricity generation and heating, creating greenhouse gas emissions and other toxic pollutants, which should be minimised according to the most recent environmental legislation. The utilisation of solid fuels with biogenic origin could contribute to the minimisation of these emissions. Solid Biofuels for Energy presents the current status of the engineering disciplines in this specific area, providing an improved background on the energy exploitation options of solid biomass. Within this framework, all thematic priorities related to the solid bioenergy potential and standardisation, commercialised and emerging energy technologies, and quality of solid residues are presented. Special attention has been given to biomass co-firing with coal, since it has the highest potential for commercial application, while combustion and gasification are more promising for units of medium to small scale. This strong practical focus is evident throughout the book, particularly in discussions of: • international standards for solid biofuel specifications; • supply, cost and sustainability of solid biofuels; • technical issues and non-technical barriers in biomass/coal co-firing; and • biomass combustion and gasification characteristics. Solid Biofuels for Energy is an informative reference, written for researchers and postgraduate students working in the field of biomass. It can also be a useful guide for chemical and mechanical engineers, involved in the environment and energy production sectors.
New Trends in Coal Conversion: Combustion, Gasification, Emissions, and Coking covers the latest advancements in coal utilization, including coal conversion processes and mitigation of environmental impacts, providing an up-to-date source of information for a cleaner and more environmentally friendly use of coal, with a particular emphasis on the two biggest users of coal—utilities and the steel industry. Coverage includes recent advances in combustion co-firing, gasification, and on the minimization of trace element and CO2 emissions that is ideal for plant engineers, researchers, and quality control engineers in electric utilities and steelmaking. Other sections cover new advances in clean coal technologies for the steel industry, technological advances in conventional by-products, the heat-recovery/non-recovering cokemaking process, and the increasing use of low-quality coals in coking blends. Readers will learn how to make more effective use of coal resources, deliver higher productivity, save energy and reduce the environmental impact of their coal utilization. Provides the current state-of-the-art and ongoing activities within coal conversion processes, with an emphasis on emerging technologies for the reduction of CO2 and trace elements Discusses innovations in cokemaking for improved efficiency, energy savings and reduced environmental impact Include case studies and examples throughout the book
Biomass is the most widely used non-fossil fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long-term given the increasing proliferation of dedicated energy crops for biofuels. The second edition of Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis is enhanced with new topics, such as torrefaction and cofiring, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass conversion systems. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Second Edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, and solid states in a single easy-to-access source. Contains new and updated step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data and conversion charts, and numerical examples with solutions Includes chapters dedicated to evolving torrefaction technologies, practicing option of biomass cofiring, and biomass conversion economics Expanded coverage of syngas and other Fischer-Tropsch alternatives Spotlights advanced processes such as supercritical water gasification and torrefaction of biomass. Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology
|Release Date||: 2015|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Highlights: Burning biomass alone has a higher NO emission than coal. Nitrogen conversion is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission has been observed. Oxygen staging combustion succeeds in controlling the NO emission. Abstract: Co-firing biomass and coal under oxy-fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) holds the potential for negative CO2 emission into the atmosphere and is a promising technology to realized atmospheric CO2 reduction. Experiments co-firing coal and three kinds of Chinese biomass, i.e. rice husk (RH), wood chips (WC) and dry wood flour (WF) under oxy-fuel condition were carried out in a 10 kWt CFBC. Results show that burning biomass separately produces higher NO emissions and a higher fuel nitrogen conversion ratio than burning coal without biomass addition due to the higher volatile matter content of the biomass; the fuel nitrogen conversion ratio is in agreement with the H/N ratio in the fuel under both air and oxy-fuel atmosphere. In oxy-fuel combustion, lower NO emission is observed than in air combustion, because CO2 replacing N2 reduces the yield of NO precursors like NH3 during the devolatilization process and enhances NO reduction via char/NO/CO reaction. NO emission increases as temperature, overall oxygen concentration and primary oxidant fraction increase during oxy-fuel combustion. Oxygen staging succeeds in controlling NO emission in a comparatively low level at high overall oxygen concentration condition. The results can be helpful for the design and operation of the oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustor.
Concern over the effects of airborne pollution, green house gases, and the impact of global warming has become a worldwide issue that transcends international boundaries, politics, and social responsibility. The 2nd Edition of Coal Energy Systems: Clean Coal Technology describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. Coal is the dirtiest of all fossil fuels. When burned, it produces emissions that contribute to global warming, create acid rain, and pollute water. With all of the interest and research surrounding nuclear energy, hydropower, and biofuels, many think that coal is finally on its way out. However, coal generates half of the electricity in the United States and throughout the world today. It will likely continue to do so as long as it's cheap and plentiful [Source: Energy Information Administration]. Coal provides stability in price and availability, will continue to be a major source of electricity generation, will be the major source of hydrogen for the coming hydrogen economy, and has the potential to become an important source of liquid fuels. Conservation and renewable/sustainable energy are important in the overall energy picture, but will play a lesser role in helping us satisfy our energy demands today. Dramatically updated to meet the needs of an ever changing energy market, Coal Energy Systems, 2nd Edition is a single source covering policy and the engineering involved in implementing that policy. The book addresses many coal-related subjects of interest ranging from the chemistry of coal and the future engineering anatomy of a coal fired plant to the cutting edge clean coal technologies being researched and utilized today. A 50% update over the first edition, this new book contains new chapters on processes such as CO2 capture and sequestration, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems, Pulverized-Coal Power Plants and Carbon Emission Trading. Existing materials on worldwide coal distribution and quantities, technical and policy issues regarding the use of coal, technologies used and under development for utilizing coal to produce heat, electricity, and chemicals with low environmental impact, vision for utilizing coal well into the 21st century, and the security coal presents. Clean Liquids and Gaseous Fuels from Coal for Electric Power Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems Pulverized-Coal Power Plants Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants Fluidized-Bed Combustion Technology CO2 capture and sequestration
This book is the result of a careful selection of contributors in the field of CFD. It is divided into three sections according to the purpose and approaches used in the development of the contributions. The first section describes the "high-performance computing" (HPC) tools and their impact on CFD modeling. The second section is dedicated to "CFD models for local and large-scale industrial phenomena." Two types of approaches are basically contained here: one concerns the adaptation from global to local scale, - e.g., the applications of CFD to study the climate changes and the adaptations to local scale. The second approach, very challenging, is the multiscale analysis. The third section is devoted to "CFD in numerical modeling approach for experimental cases." Its chapters emphasize on the numerical approach of the mathematical models associated to few experimental (industrial) cases. Here, the impact and the importance of the mathematical modeling in CFD are focused on. It is expected that the collection of these chapters will enrich the state of the art in the CFD domain and its applications in a lot of fields. This collection proves that CFD is a highly interdisciplinary research area, which lies at the interface of physics, engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.
|Author||: N. Altawell|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2014-03-28|
|ISBN 10||: 111885246X|
|Pages||: 384 pages|
A functional discussion of the crop selection process for biomass energy The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing provides a detailed examination and analysis for a number of energy crops and their use as a source for generating electricity and for the production of bio-fuels. Renowned renewable energy expert and consultant Dr. Najib Altawell begins with the fundamentals of bio-fuels and co-firing and moves on to the main feature, which is the methodology that assists energy scientists and engineers to arrive at the most suitable biomass materials tailored to each company’s business and economic environments and objectives. This methodology provides a framework whereby power-generating companies can insert their own values for each factor, whether business factor (BF) or scientific & technical factors (S&T) or both simultaneously. The methodology provides a list of factors related to the biomass energy business. The average values have been obtained from the survey method and laboratory tests. These values are the standard values power companies can use if they need or wish to use them. The Selection Process of Biomass Materials for the Production of Bio-fuels and Co-firing has been designed and compiled for the widest possible range of readers, researchers, businesspeople, and economists who are connected to the renewable energy field in general, and biomass energy in particular. Because of its focus on practical data and applications, the book is also accessible for general readers who may or may not have a technical or scientific background.
|Author||: Guangxi Yue,Hai Zhang,Changsui Zhao,Zhongyang Luo|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2010-07-28|
|ISBN 10||: 9783642026829|
|Pages||: 1182 pages|
The proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) collect 9 plenary lectures and 175 peer-reviewed technical papers presented in the conference held in Xi'an China in May 18-21,2009. The conference was the 20th conference in a series, covering the latest fundamental research results, as well as the application experience from pilot plants, demonstrations and industrial units regarding to the FBC science and technology. It was co-hosted by Tsinghua University, Southeast University, Zhejiang University, China Electricity Council and Chinese Machinery Industry Federation. A particular feature of the proceedings is the balance between the papers submitted by experts from industry and the papers submitted by academic researchers, aiming to bring academic knowledge to application as well as to define new areas for research. The authors of the proceedings are the most active researchers, technology developers, experienced and representative facility operators and manufacturers. They presented the latest research results, state-of-the-art development and projects, and the useful experience. The proceedings are divided into following sections: • CFB Boiler Technology, Operation and Design • Fundamental Research on Fluidization and Fluidized Combustion • C02 Capture and Chemical Looping • Gasification • Modeling and Simulation on FBC Technology • Environments and Pollutant Control • Sustainable Fuels The proceedings can be served as idea references for researchers, engineers, academia and graduate students, plant operators, boiler manufacturers, component suppliers, and technical managers who work on FBC fundamental research, technology development and industrial application.
|Author||: Lasse Rosendahl|
|Release Date||: 2013-04-04|
|ISBN 10||: 0857097431|
|Pages||: 320 pages|
The utilisation of biomass is increasingly important for low- or zero-carbon power generation. Developments in conventional power plant fuel flexibility allow for both direct biomass combustion and co-firing with fossil fuels, while the integration of advanced technologies facilitates conversion of a wide range of biomass feedstocks into more readily combustible fuel. Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering reviews the science and technology of biomass combustion, conversion and utilisation. Part one provides an introduction to biomass supply chains and feedstocks, and outlines the principles of biomass combustion for power generation. Chapters also describe the categorisation and preparation of biomass feedstocks for combustion and gasification. Part two goes on to explore biomass combustion and co-firing, including direct combustion of biomass, biomass co-firing and gasification, fast pyrolysis of biomass for the production of liquids and intermediate pyrolysis technologies. Largescale biomass combustion and biorefineries are then the focus of part three. Following an overview of large-scale biomass combustion plants, key engineering issues and plant operation are discussed, before the book concludes with a chapter looking at the role of biorefineries in increasing the value of the end-products of biomass conversion. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering provides a clear overview of this important area for all power plant operators, industrial engineers, biomass researchers, process chemists and academics working in this field. Reviews the science and technology of biomass combustion, conversion and utilisation Provides an introduction to biomass supply chains and feedstocks and outlines the principles of biomass combustion for power generation Describes the categorisation and preparation of biomass feedstocks for combustion and gasification