This new volume, Promising Drug Molecules of Natural Origin, explores potential beneficial drug substances derived from nature. It presents the general principles, characteristics, evaluation techniques, and applications involved in drug molecules from natural sources, such as plants and marine life. With chapters from renowned experts from around the world, the chapters in this volume address the challenges of standardization of herbal medicines, methods of characterization of natural medicines and phyto-constituents, and quality control methods for herbal medicines. Several chapters in the book focus on the evolution of phyto-constituents in cancer therapeutics, while others deal with applications for other diseases, such as diabetes and neuroinflammatory disorders. The volume also specifically reviews heterocyclic drugs from plants. This volume will be a valuable resource for faculty and advanced students in pharmaceutics as well as researchers, scientists, and industry professionals in medicine and drug development.
Electrophoresis is a widely used method in the field of life sciences, having multiple practical applications in physical, chemical, biochemical, and molecular biology domains. This book contains 8 chapters depicting various applications of this technique in biochemistry, molecular biology, and physical chemistry. This book presents the link between the exposed method and its applications in a very explicit manner and offers a wide range of practical examples. The book provides not only a vision of actual methods but also their necessary further improvements and suggested developments. Therefore, a particular attention was given to the described techniques as true guidelines in the fields where electrophoresis is recommended, being useful for not only the scientists but also the laboratory clinicians.
Chromatographic separation is widely used in many scientific disciplines today, having an ever increasing number of scientific and technological applications. The widespread use of this rapid and powerful technique requires that it be fully understood, so that the most suitable may be determined for each possible separation problem in each possible domain of scientific research and technology. Molecular Basis of Chromatographic Separation provides complete coverage of the practical and molecular aspects of this popular technique. It compiles and evaluates recent results, outlines available methods, and discusses how to select the best method for a particular application.
This textbook is the first to present a systematic introduction to chemical analysis of pharmaceutical raw materials, finished pharmaceutical products, and of drugs in biological fluids, which are carried out in pharmaceutical laboratories worldwide. In addition, this textbook teaches the fundamentals of all the major analytical techniques used in the pharmaceutical laboratory, and teaches the international pharmacopoeias and guidelines of importance for the field. It is primarily intended for the pharmacy student, to teach the requirements in “analytical chemistry” for the 5 years pharmacy curriculum, but the textbook is also intended for analytical chemists moving into the field of pharmaceutical analysis. Addresses the basic concepts, then establishes the foundations for the common analytical methods that are currently used in the quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of pharmaceutical drugs Provides an understanding of common analytical techniques used in all areas of pharmaceutical development Suitable for a foundation course in chemical and pharmaceutical sciences Aimed at undergraduate students of degrees in Pharmaceutical Science/Chemistry Analytical Science/Chemistry, Forensic analysis Includes many illustrative examples
|Author||: W.J. Lough,I.W. Wainer,Christopher M. Riley|
|Release Date||: 2013-10-22|
|ISBN 10||: 0080984541|
|Pages||: 393 pages|
This volume reflects the changes that have taken place in the pharmaceutical industry over the last ten years, most notably the increased importance attached to the question of chirality, the growing influence of biotechnology and the need for more rigorous documentation and validation of analytical methods and procedures. The first part of this book deals with the application of new technology to pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, reflecting the present needs for increased speed, sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of drugs. The second chapter provides an overview of capillary electophoresis, which represents one of the most inportant analytical developments to impact directly on pharmaceutical development in recent years. Although not a chromatographic technique, capillary electrophoresis was considered too important to be ignored. Over the last 25 years, liquid chromatography has grown into a mature analytical technique and many of the fundamental issues concerned with retention and separation are well defined. The practitioners of modern liquid chromatography spend as much time in the development of techniques for sampling handling and automation as they do in the development of the separation. Therefore, Part Two of this book describes some of the recent advances in the areas of sample handling and the isolation of compounds from biological samples, including solid phase extraction, restricted access media for direct injection, coupled column technology and microdialysis. Similarily, Part Three contains two chapters concerned with liquid chromatographic methods for the isolation of drug substances, peptides and proteins from other complex media. The pharmaceutical industry and the process of drug development are highly regulated and the increasing importance that the regulatory authorities attach to validation has had a significant impact on the analytical techniques used for the analysis of drugs. Although this has increased the workload of analysts in the pharmaceutical industry, it has also improved the quality of analytical methods used in the support of investigational and new drug applications as well as the quality of methods published more recently in the literature. Consequently, Part Four of this volume describes approaches to the optimization and validation of liquid chromatography methods for the analysis of drugs in the bulk form, in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids.
|Author||: Mike S. Lee|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2005-09-02|
|ISBN 10||: 0471721026|
|Pages||: 576 pages|
New strategies and techniques for today's fast-paced discoveryprocess Today, the pressure is on for high-throughput approaches toaccelerate the generation, identification, and optimization ofmolecules with desirable drug properties. As traditional methods ofanalysis become antiquated, new analytical strategies andtechniques are necessary to meet sample throughput requirements andmanpower constraints. Among them, mass spectrometry has grown to bea front-line tool throughout drug discovery. Integrated Strategies for Drug Discovery Using Mass Spectrometryprovides a thorough review of current analytical approaches,industry practices, and strategies in drug discovery. The topicsrepresent current industry benchmarks in specific drug discoveryactivities that deal with proteomics, biomarker discovery,metabonomic approaches for toxicity screening, lead identification,compound libraries, quantitative bioanalytical support,biotransformation, reactive metabolite characterization, leadoptimization, pharmaceutical property profiling, sample preparationstrategies, and automation. THIS BOOK: * Clearly explains how drug discovery and mass spectrometry areinterconnected * Discusses the uses and limitations of various types of massspectrometry in various aspects of drug discovery * Prominently features analytical applications that requiretrace-mixture analysis * Provides industry applications and real-world examples * Shares historical background information on various techniques toaid in the understanding of how and why new methods are now beingemployed to analyze samples
|Author||: Gade Pandu Rangaiah,Adri¿n Bonilla-Petriciolet|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2013-03-20|
|ISBN 10||: 1118341686|
|Pages||: 528 pages|
For reasons both financial and environmental, there is a perpetual need to optimize the design and operating conditions of industrial process systems in order to improve their performance, energy efficiency, profitability, safety and reliability. However, with most chemical engineering application problems having many variables with complex inter-relationships, meeting these optimization objectives can be challenging. This is where Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) is useful to find the optimal trade-offs among two or more conflicting objectives. This book provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of MOO for modeling, design and operation of chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, energy and related processes. It then covers important theoretical and computational developments as well as specific applications such as metabolic reaction networks, chromatographic systems, CO2 emissions targeting for petroleum refining units, ecodesign of chemical processes, ethanol purification and cumene process design. Multi-Objective Optimization in Chemical Engineering: Developments and Applications is an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students in chemical engineering as well as industrial practitioners and engineers involved in process design, modeling and optimization.
|Author||: Kiyokatsu Jinno|
|Release Date||: 1997-03-21|
|Pages||: 426 pages|
Chromatographic Separations Based on Molecular Recognition provides an in-depth understanding of the molecular recognition mechanism as applied to the design of chromatographic processes for separations. By considering the chemistry behind the particular process employed, the chromatographer will be better able to choose the most suitable technique for a given separation problem. A knowledge of molecular recognition mechanisms will also simplify the design and synthesis of novel stationary phases. This book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and biochemistry.
This book on medicinal plant biotechnology covers recent developments in this field. It includes a comprehensive up-to-date survey on established medicinal plants and on molecules which gained importance in recent years. No recently published book has covered these carefully selected topics. The contributing scientists have been selected on the basis of their involvement in the related plant material as evident by their internationally recognised published work.
As the medicinal plant industry blooms into a billion dollar business, it reaches beyond collection, propagation, harvesting and sale of crude vegetal drugs into product formulation, packaging and dispensing of sophisticated phyto-pharmaceuticals and herbal preparations. The scientific study of these medicines and the systematic uplifting of the industry to preserve the ancient and serve the modern, is now a global challenge. The Medicinal Plant Industry puts together the various facets of this multi-disciplinary industry and its global interest. It discusses the dire need for developing countries to acquire technologies and techniques for programmed cultivation of medicinal plants. It addresses a wide variety of topics including the old philosophies, modern impact of traditional medicines, and methods of assessing the spontaneous flora for industrial utilization. It covers aspects of cultivation and climatic variations, biological assessment and formulation, process technologies, phytochemical research and information sources. The book reviews highly developed traditional medicine in China and India, and covers experiences in Africa and other continents.
In this third edition, more than 40 renowned authorities introduce and update chapters on the theory, fundamentals, techniques, and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), highlighting the latest procedures and applications of TLC to 19 important compound classes and coverage of TLC applications by compound type. Easily adaptable to industrial scenarios , the Handbook of Thin-Layer Chromatography, Third Edition supports practical research strategies with extensive tables of data, offers numerous figures that illustrate techniques and chromatograms, and includes a glossary as well as a directory of equipment suppliers.
|Author||: Joseph Chamberlain|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 1995-09-18|
|ISBN 10||: 9780849324925|
|Pages||: 368 pages|
This new edition focuses on a variety of techniques available for the analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Over 150 figures and tables help to describe the latest advances and give examples of their applications. Current chiral analysis methods as well as discussions on the impact of chirality are described. Practical aspects of bioanalytical work, including many examples of laboratory problems not often reported in the scientific literature, are examined in depth.
|Author||: Carl A. Burtis,Edward R. Ashwood,David E. Bruns|
|Publisher||: Elsevier Health Sciences|
|Release Date||: 2012-10-14|
|ISBN 10||: 1455759422|
|Pages||: 2256 pages|
As the definitive reference for clinical chemistry, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 5th Edition offers the most current and authoritative guidance on selecting, performing, and evaluating results of new and established laboratory tests. Up-to-date encyclopedic coverage details everything you need to know, including: analytical criteria for the medical usefulness of laboratory procedures; new approaches for establishing reference ranges; variables that affect tests and results; the impact of modern analytical tools on lab management and costs; and applications of statistical methods. In addition to updated content throughout, this two-color edition also features a new chapter on hemostasis and the latest advances in molecular diagnostics. Section on Molecular Diagnostics and Genetics contains nine expanded chapters that focus on emerging issues and techniques, written by experts in field, including Y.M. Dennis Lo, Rossa W.K. Chiu, Carl Wittwer, Noriko Kusukawa, Cindy Vnencak-Jones, Thomas Williams, Victor Weedn, Malek Kamoun, Howard Baum, Angela Caliendo, Aaron Bossler, Gwendolyn McMillin, and Kojo S.J. Elenitoba-Johnson. Highly-respected author team includes three editors who are well known in the clinical chemistry world. Reference values in the appendix give you one location for comparing and evaluating test results. NEW! Two-color design throughout highlights important features, illustrations, and content for a quick reference. NEW! Chapter on hemostasis provides you with all the information you need to accurately conduct this type of clinical testing. NEW! Six associate editors, Ann Gronowski, W. Greg Miller, Michael Oellerich, Francois Rousseau, Mitchell Scott, and Karl Voelkerding, lend even more expertise and insight to the reference. NEW! Reorganized chapters ensure that only the most current information is included.
Written and edited by the most respected authorities in forensic nursing and forensic sciences, this new edition provides the tools and concepts you need to collect evidence that is admissible in court, determine the significance of that evidence, and provide accurate, reliable testimony while administering high-quality patient care. Now in full color throughout, it remains the most comprehensive, highly illustrated text of its kind. Provides a comprehensive, updated guide to forensic nursing science, paying special attention to the International Association of Forensic Nurses’s (IAFN) goals for forensic nursing. Retains a focus on assessment skills and the collection and preservation of evidence, following the established guidelines of the forensic sciences. Prepares you to provide testimony as a fact witness or a forensic nursing expert. Includes an illustrated case study in almost every chapter, helping you relate the information to clinical practice. Highlights important recommendations for interventions in Best Practice boxes, including the evidence base for each. Summarizes important points in Key Point boxes, so you can quickly review the most important concepts in each chapter. Explores the evolving role of forensic nurses in today’s health care facilities and the community. Edited by Virginia Lynch, founding member and first President of the International Association of Forensic Nurses and Janet Barber Duval, both well-respected pioneers and educators in the field. Contains 300 full-color illustrations integrated throughout the text, so you can view evidence quickly and easily, as it is likely to appear in practice. Presents information on courtroom testimony and depositions in one reorganized, streamlined chapter, giving you a full, organized treatment of this extremely important topic. Includes twelve new chapters: Digital Evidence, Medical Evidence Recovery at the Death Scene, Asphyxia, Electrical and Thermal Injury, Intrafamilial Homicide and Unexplained Childhood Death, Human Trafficking, Credential Development for Forensic Nurses, Gangs and Hate Crimes, Ethics Issues in Forensic Nursing, Forensic Physics and Fracture Analysis, Sexual Deviant Behaviors and Crime and Forensic Epidemiology. Contains heavily revised information on Prehospital Evidence, Forensic Investigation in the Hospital, and Human Abuse and Deaths in Custody. Features critical thinking questions with every case study, so you can thoroughly consider the implications of each clinical scenario. Evolve site will include appendices and additional documentation materials.
Antibody Engineering comprises in vitro selection and modification of human antibodies including humanization of mouse antibodies for therapy, diagnosis, and research. This book comprises an overview about the generation of antibody diversity and essential techniques in antibody engineering: construction of immune, naive and synthetic libraries, all available in vitro display methods, humanization by chain shuffling, affinity maturation techniques, de novo synthesis of antibody genes, colony assays for library screening, construction of scFvs from hybridomas, and purification of monoclonal antibodies by exclusion chromatography. In addition, other topics that are discussed in this book are application and mechanism of single domain antibodies, structural diversity of antibodies, immune-mediated skin reactions induced by TNF-alpha recombinant antibodies, and bioinformatic approaches to select pathogen-derived peptide sequences for antibody targets.
This text shows how many complex behaviors of molecules can result from a few simple physical processes. A central theme is the idea that simplistic models can give surprisingly accurate insights into the workings of the molecular world. Written in a clear and student-friendly style, the book gives an excellent introduction to the field for novices. It should also be useful to those who want to refresh their understanding of this important field, and those interested in seeing how physical principles can be applied to the study of problems in the chemical, biological, and material sciences. Furthermore, Molecular Driving Forces contains a number of features including: 449 carefully produced figures illustrating the subject matter; 178 worked examples in the chapters which explain the key concepts and show their practical applications; The text is mathematically self-contained, with 'mathematical toolkits' providing the required maths; Advanced material that might not be suitable for some elementary courses is clearly delineated in the text; End-of-chapter references and suggestions for further reading.
Polymers are mainly characterized by molar mass, chemical composition, functionality and architecture. The determination of the complex structure of polymers by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods is one of the major concerns of polymer analysis and characterization. This lab manual describes the experimental approach to the chromatographic analysis of polymers. Different chromatographic methods, their theoretical background, equipment, experimental procedures and applications are discussed. The book will enable polymer chemists, physicists and material scientists as well as students of macromolecular and analytical science to optimize chromatographic conditions for a specific separation problem. Special emphasis is given to the description of applications for homo- and copolymers and polymer blends.
Recent years have seen a greater industrial emphasis in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the pharmaceutical and chemical sciences. However, textbooks have been slow to adapt, leaving the field without a text/reference that is both instructional and practical in the industrial setting – until now. A Handbook of Bioanalysis and Drug Metabolismis a stimulating new text that examines the techniques, methodology, and theory of bioanalysis, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism from the perspective of scientists with extensive professional experience in drug discovery and development. These three areas of research help drug developers to optimize the active component within potential drugs thereby increasing their effectiveness, and to provide safety and efficacy information required by regulators when granting a drug license. Professionals with extensive experience in drug discovery and development as well as specialized knowledge of the individual topics contributed to each chapter to create a current and well-credentialed text. It covers topics such as high performance liquid chromatography, protein binding, pharmacokinetics and drug–drug interactions. The unique industrial perspective helps to reinforce theory and develop valuable analytical and interpreting skills. This text is an invaluable guide to students in courses such as pharmaceutical science, pharmacology, chemistry, physiology and toxicology, as well as professionals in the biotechnology industry.
This book is intended both to be an introduction to techniques and applications of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and to serve as a reference for future workers. When we undertook its writing, we chose not to cover the field, particularly applications, exhaustively. Rather we wished to produce a book that would be of use to people just beginning to use the technique as well as to more advanced practitioners. In this regard, we have sought to highlight techniques and applications that are of current importance, while not neglecting descriptions of approaches that may be of significance in the future. We hope that we have succeeded in this. At the same time we hope that the bibliography, with indexes classified by author and title, will make this book of value to those who may disagree with our emphasis. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. One of us (C. G. E. ) wishes to acknowledge the en couragment of Professor J. A. McCloskey in undertaking this project. All four of us are grateful for the continuous and expert assistance of V. A. Edmonds in the preparation of the Bibliography. Alfred L. Y ergey Bethesda, Maryland Charles G. Edmonds Richland, Washington lvor A. S. Lewis London, England Marvin L. Vestal Houston, Texas v Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Direct Liquid Introduction Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . 2. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. 2. Operating Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. 3. Specific DLI Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. 3. 1. Capillary Inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. 3. 2. Diaphragm Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. 3. 3. Nebulizing Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Due to its enormous sensitivity and ease of use, mass spectrometry has grown into the analytical tool of choice in most industries and areas of research. This unique reference provides an extensive library of methods used in mass spectrometry, covering applications of mass spectrometry in fields as diverse as drug discovery, environmental science, forensic science, clinical analysis, polymers, oil composition, doping, cellular research, semiconductor, ceramics, metals and alloys, and homeland security. The book provides the reader with a protocol for the technique described (including sampling methods) and explains why to use a particular method and not others. Essential for MS specialists working in industrial, environmental, and clinical fields.