Genome Plasticity in Health and Disease provides a fully up-to-date overview on genome plasticity and its role in human physiology and disease. Following an introduction to the field, a diverse range of chapters cover genomic and epigenomic analysis and the use of model organisms and genomic databases in studies. Specific molecular and biochemical mechanisms of genome plasticity are examined, including somatic variants, De Novo variants, founder variations, isolated populations dynamics, copy-number variations, mobile elements, DNA methylation, histone modifications, transcription factors, non-coding RNAs, telomere dynamics and RNA editing. Later chapters explore disease relevance for cancer, as well as cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, inflammatory, and endocrine disease, and associated pathways for drug discovery. Examines the role of genome plasticity across a range of disease types, from cardiovascular disease, to cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders Adopts an interdisciplinary approach, with expert contributions across the spectrum of basic science and disease relevance to drug discovery
Chromatin Signaling and Diseases covers the molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which govern everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging, such as cancer. This book helps researchers learn about or keep up with the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling. After reading this book, clinicians will be more capable of explaining the mechanisms of gene expression regulation to their patients to reassure them about new drug developments that target chromatin signaling mechanisms. For example, several epigenetic drugs that act on chromatin signaling factors are in clinical trials or even approved for usage in cancer treatments, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Other epigenetic drugs are in development to regulate various class of chromatin signaling factors. To keep up with this changing landscape, clinicians and doctors will need to stay familiar with genetic advances that translate to clinical practice, such as chromatin signaling. Although sequencing of the human genome was completed over a decade ago and its structure investigated for nearly half a century, molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression remain largely misunderstood. An emerging concept called chromatin signaling proposes that small protein domains recognize chemical modifications on the genome scaffolding histone proteins, facilitating the nucleation of enzymatic complexes at specific loci that then open up or shut down the access to genetic information, thereby regulating gene expression. The addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, as well as the proteins that specifically recognize these, is reviewed in Chromatin Signaling and Diseases. Finally, the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling is also explored. Explains molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, which governs everything from embryonic development, growth, and human pathologies associated with aging Educates clinicians and researchers about chromatin signaling, a molecular mechanism that is changing our understanding of human pathology Explores the addition and removal of chemical modifications on histones, the proteins that specifically recognize these, and the impact of gene expression defects associated with malfunctioning chromatin signaling Helps researchers learn about the quickly expanding field of chromatin signaling
There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.
Nutritional Epigenomics offers a comprehensive overview of nutritional epigenomics as a mode of study, along with nutrition’s role in the epigenomic regulation of disease, health and developmental processes. Here, an expert team of international contributors introduces readers to nutritional epigenomic regulators of gene expression, our diet’s role in epigenomic regulation of disease and disease inheritance, caloric restriction and exercise as they relate to recent epigenomic findings, and the influence of nutritional epigenomics over circadian rhythms, aging and longevity, and fetal health and development, among other processes. Disease specific chapters address metabolic disease (obesity and diabetes), cancer, and neurodegeneration, among other disorders. Diet-gut microbiome interactions in the epigenomic regulation of disease are also discussed, as is the role of micronutrients and milk miRNAs in epigenetic regulation. Finally, chapter authors examine ongoing discussions of race and ethnicity in the social-epigenomic regulation of health and disease. Empowers the reader to employ nutritional epigenomics approaches in their own research Discusses the latest topics in nutritional epigenomics in the regulation of aging, circadian rhythm, inheritance and fetal development, as well as metabolism and disease Offers a full grounding in epigenetic reprogramming and nutritional intervention in the treatment and prevention of disease, as informed by population-based studies
This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.
Although various developmental disabilities affecting children and adults might have different pathogeneses, underlying mechanisms, and clinical presentations, the current books emphasizes the fact that there are numerous commonalities in methods of understanding, clinical diagnosis, and handling of behavioral abnormalities in affected individuals. For instance, understanding sexual maturation and its consequences in people with intellectual disability would certainly present a path to better understanding of the differences with controls and more effective handling of the unwanted consequences in people affected.
|Author||: Rebecca Fry|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2020-10-23|
|ISBN 10||: 0128199695|
|Pages||: 364 pages|
Environmental Epigenetics in Toxicology and Public Health provides in-depth discussions of the suite of complex environmental factors shown to impact epigenetic components within the cell, as well as evidence that these epigenetic modifications are tied to early and later life health effects. This book offers a translational research perspective, highlighting both in vivo and human population-based evidence for ties between the environment, the epigenome, and health outcomes, with an emphasis on evidence for transgenerational effects of exposures, as well as developmental windows of susceptibility to environmentally-linked epigenetic effects. This volume in the Translational Epigenetics series aides in the development of new therapeutic options meant to reverse inappropriate epigenetic alterations, helping researchers in their efforts prevent and treat a variety of chronic diseases tied to environmental exposures. Offers a thorough discussion of the environmental factors influencing epigenetic mechanisms in early and late life, and in transgenerational inheritance Examines both animal model and human population-based research in environmental epigenetics, highlighting developmental windows of vulnerability to epigenetic modification Features contributions from international experts in the field
Epigenetics can potentially revolutionize our understanding of the structure and behavior of biological life on Earth. It explains why mapping an organism's genetic code is not enough to determine how it develops or acts and shows how nurture combines with nature to engineer biological diversity. Surveying the twenty-year history of the field while also highlighting its latest findings and innovations, this volume provides a readily understandable introduction to the foundations of epigenetics. Nessa Carey, a leading epigenetics researcher, connects the field's arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies; why tortoiseshell cats are always female; why some plants need cold weather before they can flower; and how our bodies age and develop disease. Reaching beyond biology, epigenetics now informs work on drug addiction, the long-term effects of famine, and the physical and psychological consequences of childhood trauma. Carey concludes with a discussion of the future directions for this research and its ability to improve human health and well-being.
DNA damage response (DDR) and lesion repair are vital processes ensuring genome integrity through various pathways depending mainly on the nature of DNA injury and cell cycle stage. DDR is finely regulated at many levels in co-ordination with other ongoing processes as is genome replication and cell cycle progression. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs), affecting both protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, play a crucial role in finely tuning all processes involved in the restoration of genome lesions. Regarding damaged chromatin, PTMs serve in many cases as recruitment platforms for DNA repair mechanisms by facilitating binding sites or regulating interactions between involved proteins. Ubiquitination, the addition of ubiquitin moieties on a target protein, apart from controlling protein availability through degradation, is also involved, together with partner small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), in controlling many pathways involved in DDR by modifying the structure-function relationship and thus interacting with partner molecules. The aim of this book is to cover a broad spectrum of current topics in ubiquitination and to a lesser extent SUMOylation involvement in regulation of DDR and repair in health and disease. This book is intended for pre- and postgraduate students and young scientists in this field. Members of both academic and research institutions, actively involved in the field, have described their current understanding of major mechanisms involved, highlighted key events, described ongoing applications in both developmental diseases and cancer and provided hints for future potential applications.
"After reviewing the field's history and context, the authors introduce and explain each key epigenetic mechanism. Next, they extensively discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interactions of individual organisms with their environments"--Cover, p. .
This book includes a collection of articles with the broad theme of disease connection to chromatin structure and function. It elaborates on the molecular pharmacology of the drugs targeting chromatin structure and its components. The book contains up-to-date information about the chromatin structure and chromatin related diseases and drug functions. This work is the first endeavor to present different aspects encompassing the above theme.
Computational Epigenetics and Diseases, written by leading scientists in this evolving field, provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases. In particular, the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, for example, DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA, are summarized, in the context of human diseases. This book discusses bioinformatics methods for epigenetic analysis specifically applied to human conditions such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, liver and autoimmune disorders, and reproductive and respiratory diseases. Additionally, different organ cancers, such as breast, lung, and colon, are discussed. This book is a valuable source for graduate students and researchers in genetics and bioinformatics, and several biomedical field members interested in applying computational epigenetics in their research. Provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge knowledge of computational epigenetics in human diseases Summarizes the major computational tools, databases, and strategies for computational epigenetics analysis, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNA, noncoding RNA, and ceRNA Covers the major milestones and future directions of computational epigenetics in various kinds of human diseases such as aging, atherosclerosis, diabetes, heart disease, neurological disorders, cancers, blood disorders, liver diseases, reproductive diseases, respiratory diseases, autoimmune diseases, human imprinting disorders, and infectious diseases