Thanks to their unique properties, chitosan and chitosan-based materials have numerous applications in the field of biomedicine, especially in drug delivery. This book examines biomedical applications of functional chitosan, exploring the various functions and applications in the development of chitosan-based biomaterials. It also describes the chemical structure of chitosan and discusses the relationship between their structure and functions, providing a theoretical basis for the design of biomaterials. Lastly, it reviews chemically modified and composite materials of chitin and chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, nanomedicine, drug delivery, and gene delivery.
Chitosan Based Biomaterials: Fundamentals, Volume 1, provides the latest information on chitosan, a natural polymer derived from the marine material chitin. Chitosan displays unique properties, most notably biocompatibility and biodegradability. It can also be easily tuned to modify its structure or properties, making chitosan an excellent candidate as a biomaterial. Consequently, chitosan is being developed for many biomedical functions, ranging from tissue engineering and implant coatings to drug and gene delivery. This book looks at the fundamentals of chitosan-based biomaterials. Contains specific focus on the techniques and technologies needed to develop chitosan for biomedical applications Presents a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals Provides contributions from leading researchers with extensive experience in chitosan
|Author||: Emad Shalaby|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2017-01-11|
|ISBN 10||: 9535128590|
|Pages||: 328 pages|
Marine organisms have been under research for the last decades as a source for different active compounds with various biological activities and application in agriculture, pharmacy, medicine, environment, and industries. Marine polysaccharides from these active compounds are used as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, bioremediations, etc. During the last three decades, several important factors that control the production of phytoplankton polysaccharides have been identified such as chemical concentrations, temperature, light, etc. The current book includes 14 chapters contributed by experts around the world; the chapters are categorized into three sections: Marine Polysaccharides and Agriculture, Marine Polysaccharides and Biological Activities, and Marine Polysaccharides and Industries.
This book delves deeply in to the preparation, characterization and multiple applications of chitin and chitosan. The 17 chapters written by leading experts is an excellent reference source and state-of-the-art review for researchers and scientists using chitosan or biopolymers in their respective areas. This book is divided into following sections: • Production and derivatives of chitosan • Chitosan in the textile and food industries • Chitosan in biomedical applications • Chitosan in agriculture and water treatment The book is practical as readers will be able to see descriptions of chitosan production methods as well as techniques that can be used to estimate and modify their physical and chemical properties. It provides a full description not only of the traditional and recent developments in the applications of chitosan in the fields of biotechnology, environmental studies, food, medicine, water treatments, drug delivery, but it includes all of the therapeutically usages as well.
Hydrogels, as three-dimensional polymer networks, are able to retain a large amount of water in their swollen state. The biomedical application of hydrogels was initially hampered by the toxicity of cross-linking agents and the limitations of hydrogel formation under physiological conditions. However, emerging knowledge in polymer chemistry and an increased understanding of biological processes have resulted in the design of versatile materials and minimally invasive therapies.The novel but challenging properties of hydrogels are attracting the attention of researchers in the biological, medical, and pharmaceutical fields. In the last few years, new methods have been developed for the preparation of hydrophilic polymers and hydrogels, which may be used in future biomedical and drug delivery applications. Such efforts include the synthesis of self-organized nanostructures based on triblock copolymers with applications in controlled drug delivery. These hydrogels could be used as carriers for drug delivery when combined with the techniques of drug imprinting and subsequent release. Engineered protein hydrogels have many potential advantages. They are excellent biomaterials and biodegradables. Furthermore, they could encapsulate drugs and be used in injectable forms to replace surgery, to repair damaged cartilage, in regenerative medicine, or in tissue engineering. Also, they have potential applications in gene therapy, although this field is relatively new.
The modified formulations were tested for their in vitro gene delivery properties and it was found that these ligands improved gene transfection efficiencies significantly. Chitosan nanoparticles were optimized further for enzyme immobilization purposes using sodium sulfate and glutaraldehyde as physical and chemical cross-linking agents, respectively. These particles and chitosan films were used for immobilizing trypsin utilizing several techniques. Enzyme immobilization via avidin-biotin interaction resulted in high immobilization efficiency and high enzymatic activity in different reaction conditions. Additionally, the immobilized trypsin systems were stable and amenable to be regenerated for multiple uses. Finally, glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan films were modified with PEG and RGD for their cell repellant and cell adhesion properties, respectively, using avidin-biotin interaction. This method was again effective in engineering chitosan surfaces for modulating cell adhesion and proliferation. In conclusion, using avidin-biotin technique to modify biotinylated chitosan surfaces is a facile method to attach a wide variety of ligands in mild reaction conditions, while preserving the functionality of these ligands.
In the past few decades, marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, have been extensively explored as potential sources of bioactive compounds with applications in various fields such as pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, cosmetics and foodstuffs. Marine polysaccharides, such as chitin/chitosan, ulvans, fucans, alginates and carrageenans, are biochemical compounds with several important properties such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antilipidemic, hypoglycemic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Due to their biocompatible, nontoxic and biodegradable nature, marine polysaccharides offer a better alternative to be used in advancement of the biomedical field. This book focuses on marine polysaccharides; their derivatives, blends, composites and hydrogels; and their multifaceted applications in various fields. The book also discusses the various aspects of marine polysaccharides from the point of view of chemistry and related applications. It is an important reference for marine biotechnologists, natural product scientists, students, researchers and academicians working in the area of materials science, marine science and polymer chemistry.
A natural long-chain polymer, chitin is the main component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods (including crustaceans and insects), the radulas of mollusks, and the beaks and internal shells of cephalopods. However, marine crustacean shells are the primary sources of the chitin derivative chitosan. Chitin and chitosan are useful for various biological and biomedical applications, although they have been limited by poor solubility in the past. Current research focuses on increasing their solubility and bioactivity through molecular modifications. The resulting derivatives are receiving much attention for interesting properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and nontoxicity, that make them suitable for use in the biomedical field. Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives: Advances in Drug Discovery and Developments presents current research trends in the synthesis of chitin and chitosan derivatives, their biological activities, and their biomedical applications. Part I discusses basic information about the synthesis and characterization of a variety of derivatives, including the preparation of chitin nanofibers. Part II covers chitin and chitosan modifications as the basis for biological applications. It describes antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, anticoagulant, and antimicrobial activities. Part III addresses chemically modified and composite materials of chitin and chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, nanomedicine, drug delivery, and wound dressing. A must-have reference for novices and experts in biotechnology, natural products, materials science, nutraceuticals, and biomedical engineering, this book presents a wide range of biological and biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan derivatives for drug discovery and development.
This book reviews recent research and applications of chitin and chitosan, as natural alternatives of fossil fuel products, in green chemistry, energy, biotechnology, bioprinting, medicine, water treatment, agriculture and food science. Chitin and chitosan products are polysaccharides derived from food waste of crustaceans and fungi, and thus are cheap, abundant, sustainable, non-toxic, recyclable and biocompatible.
Offers a comprehensive guide to the isolation, properties and applications of chitin and chitosan Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications presents a comprehensive review of the isolation, properties and applications of chitin and chitosan. These promising biomaterials have the potential to be broadly applied and there is a growing market for these biopolymers in areas such as medical and pharmaceutical, packaging, agricultural, textile, cosmetics, nanoparticles and more. The authors – noted experts in the field – explore the isolation, characterization and the physical and chemical properties of chitin and chitosan. They also examine their properties such as hydrogels, immunomodulation and biotechnology, antimicrobial activity and chemical enzymatic modifications. The book offers an analysis of the myriad medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as a review of applications in other areas. In addition, the authors discuss regulations, markets and perspectives for the use of chitin and chitosan. This important book: Offers a thorough review of the isolation, properties and applications of chitin and chitosan. Contains information on the wide-ranging applications and growing market demand for chitin and chitosan Includes a discussion of current regulations and the outlook for the future Written for Researchers in academia and industry who are working in the fields of chitin and chitosan, Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications offers a review of these promising biomaterials that have great potential due to their material properties and biological functionalities.
Fungal nanobionics has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agriculture, medicine and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemical, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in a wide range of applications, ranging from drug development to food industry and agricultural sector. The fungal agents emerge as an environmentally friendly, clean, non‐toxic agent for the biogenic metal nanoparticles and employs both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia affording an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the larger spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals and plants, is essential to underpin real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.
The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin. An update on the research since 2001 as it pertains to the biomaterials and biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan An expanded discussion on positioning chitin and chitosan for biomedical applications Presents regulatory aspects of chitin and chitosan
|Author||: Hiroshi Tamura|
|Release Date||: 2008-01-01|
|ISBN 10||: 9788130802541|
|Pages||: 176 pages|
Chitin, poly (ß-(1?4)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine), is a natural polysaccharide of major importance, first identified in 1884. It is the second most abundant natural polymer after cellulose and exists largely in the marine crustacean. Chitin occurs in nature as ordered crystalline microfibrils forming structural components in the exoskeleton of arthropods or in the cell walls of fungi and yeast. The most important derivative of chitin is chitosan, which is obtained by partial N-deacetylation of chitin in the solid state under alkaline conditions (concentrated NaOH) or by enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of a chitin deacetylase. Because of the semicrystalline morphology of chitin, chitosans obtained by an alkaline reaction have a heterogeneous distribution of acetyl groups along the chains. Studies on chitin and chitosan have been intensified since 1990 because these polysaccharides show excellent biological properties such as biodegradation in the human body, and immunological, antibacterial, and wound-healing activity. In recent studies, especially, chitosan has been found to be a good candidate as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture, and tissue engineering. Therefore, chitin and chitosan are receiving greater attention as novel functional materials. Despite their interesting biological properties, utilization has been scarcely developed. This review book is a comprehensive introduction to the bioscience and biomedical applications of chitin and chitosan. This review book covers the synthesis and biological properties of chitin and chitosan derivatives and their applications in drug delivery, medical and biological fields. This review book also covers almost all the important findings in these fields and explored these results clearly. The main importance of this review book is to know the chemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan. These broad ranges of topics that are systematically discussed in this review book will be helpful to carry out more innovative researches in chitin and chitosan in the near future. This review book contains seven chapters included with the various topics of current research interest. Chapter 1 is focusing various methods of preparation of water soluble derivatives of chitin and chitosan. Moreover, the potential applications of these derivatives in the various fields such as drug delivery, food, cosmetics, tissue engineering and environmental is also discussed. In Chapter 2 are reviews the various methods of synthesis, properties of the chemically modified chitosans and their applications of the chemically modified chitosans derivatives for controlled drug and non-viral gene delivery. The knowledge of chitosan scaffold preparation and their characterization and biological activities, which are reported in recent literatures, are discussed in Chapter 3. The Chapter 4, the developments of chitin and chitosan interfaces for the applications in biosensors, microarray, cell arrays, micro fluidic devices and bioimaging are focused. The recent research and development of chitin/chitosan based biomaterials for potential application in orthopedic or bone and cartilage tissue engineering is reviewed in the Chapter 5. The chapter 6 is focusing on the various types of chitosan derivatives and their use in various tissue engineering applications namely, skin, bone, cartilage, liver, nerve and blood vessel. In chapter 7 is focusing about the production and properties of chitin and chitosan obtained from crustacean and fungal sources and their applications in medical and biological sectors are discussed. This review book explains that the advantage of chitin and chitosan over the other polysaccharides. As described in this review, the chemical structure of chitin and chitosan allows specific modifications at their reactive sites, without changing the bulk properties. Specific groups can be introduced into their reactive sites to design polymers for selected applications. Since the biological properties of chitin and chitosan are valuable for medical applications, the developments in these filed can be considered as valuable extensions of the use of chitin and its derivatives. I expect that this review book will be helpful to the people, who are interesting in chitin and chitosan research. I warmly thank the authors for their efforts in producing such informed and enlightening exposition on these topics in chitin and chitosan. Finally, I acknowledge the staff of Research Signpost (India) for their patience and assistance.
The Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan: Preparation and Properties, Volume One, is a must-read for polymer chemists, physicists and engineers interested in the development of ecofriendly micro and nanostructured functional materials based on chitin and their various applications. The book addresses the entirety of working with these materials, from their isolation, preparation and properties, through composites, nanomaterials, manufacturing and characterizations. This is the first of three volumes in a series that contains the latest on the major applications of chitin and chitosan based IPN’s, blends, gels, composites and nanocomposites, including environmental remediation, biomedical applications and smart material applications. Provides a comprehensive overview of Chitin and Chitosan materials, from their synthesis and nanomaterials, to their manufacture and applications Volume One focuses on the synthesis and properties of Chitosan and/or Chitin Includes contributions from leading researchers across the globe and from industry, academia, government and private research institutions Highlights current status and future opportunities
|Author||: Se-Kwon Kim|
|Publisher||: CRC Press|
|Release Date||: 2010-07-14|
|ISBN 10||: 1439816042|
|Pages||: 666 pages|
Biopolymers found in marine animals and plants offer tremendous, largely untapped pharmaceutical potential. Research shows that these biopolymers can be used to combat various infectious as well as inflammatory, oxidative, and carcinogenic factors. Chitin, Chitosan, Oligosaccharides and Their Derivatives: Biological Activities and Applications cove
|Author||: Md Saquib Hasnain,Amit Kumar Nayak|
|Publisher||: Academic Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-07-23|
|ISBN 10||: 0128170565|
|Pages||: 654 pages|
Natural Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications provides a fundamental overview of natural polysaccharides, their sources, extraction methodologies, and characterizations. It covers specific natural polysaccharides and their effective application in drug delivery and biomedical use. Additionally, chapters in the book discuss key topics including the sources and extraction methodologies of natural polysaccharides, their role in tissue engineering applications, polysaccharide-based nanoparticles in biomedical applications, and their role in the delivery of anticancer drugs. Written by industry leaders and edited by experts, this book emphasizes recent advances made in the field. Natural Polysaccharides in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications provides academics, researchers, and pharmaceutical health care professionals with a comprehensive book on polysaccharides in pharmaceutical delivery process. Provides fundamental concepts of natural polysaccharides as it applies to the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and biotechnology industries Includes contributions from global leaders and experts from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies in the application of natural polysaccharides in pharmaceutical products and biomedical utilization Offers practical examples, illustrations, chemical structures, and research case studies to help explain natural polysaccharides concepts in drug delivery and biomedical applications
This cutting-edge book focuses on the emerging area ofbiomaterials and biodevices that incorporate therapeutic agents,molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities The design and development of biomaterials play a significantrole in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Whenused with highly selective and sensitive biomaterials, cutting-edgebiodevices can allow the rapid and accurate diagnosis of disease,creating a platform for research and development, especially in thefield of treatment for prognosis and detection of diseases in theearly stage. This book emphasizes the emerging area of biomaterialsand biodevices that incorporate therapeutic agents, moleculartargeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities. The 15 comprehensive chapters written by leading experts coversuch topics as: The use of severe plastic deformation technique to enhance theproperties of nanostructured metals Descriptions of the different polymers for use in controlleddrug release Chitin and chitosan as renewable healthcare biopolymers forbiomedical applications Innovated devices such as “label-free biochips” andpolymer MEMS Molecular imprinting and nanotechnology Prussian Blue biosensing applications The evaluation of different types of biosensors in terms oftheir cost effectiveness, selectivity, and sensitivity Stimuli-responsive polypeptide nanocarriers for malignancytherapeutics
Chitosan Based Biomaterials: Tissue Engineering and Therapeutics, Volume 2, provides the latest information on chitosan, a natural polymer derived from the marine material chitin. Chitosan displays unique properties, most notably biocompatibility and biodegradability. It can also be easily tuned to modify its structure or properties, making chitosan an excellent candidate as a biomaterial. Consequently, chitosan is being developed for many biomedical functions, ranging from tissue engineering and implant coatings to drug and gene delivery. This book provides readers with a full coverage of the applications of chitosan-based biomaterials. Presents specific focus on tissue engineering and therapeutics Provides comprehensive treatment of all biomaterial applications of chitosan Contains contributions by leading researchers with extensive experience in the material
|Author||: Paula Pereira|
|Publisher||: Nova Science Pub Incorporated|
|Release Date||: 2010|
|ISBN 10||: 9781617610981|
|Pages||: 76 pages|
Chitosan is a rather abundant material with exquisite properties, which may be processed into a variety of materials including hydrogels, fibres, membranes, etc. The production of chitosan-based nanogels, also known as macromolecular miceles, has been successfully achieved using different techniques, which will be reviewed. This book covers the properties and applications of chitosan nanogels in the biomedical field, namely as a drug delivery vehicle for biopharmaceuticals. The main achievements and recent developments will be addressed in this book.