This book, Telomere - A Complex End of a Chromosome, is organized into nine chapters containing the latest aspects of the current knowledge about the structure of telomeres and the crucial role that telomerase plays not only in maintaining chromosomal stability but also in relation to cell immortality, cell instability, and cancer biology. We now appreciate that these unusual complexes of DNA and proteins we all know as "telomeres" are dynamic and key structures that depend on telomerase and other cellular factors for continuance. Regulation of telomere activity is a dynamic area of current research, and new insights into telomeres and their role in aging and cancer, among other biological functions and pathologies, appear regularly in the scientific world. However, one fact is more than understandable in this difficult biological conundrum: the end of the telomere story is far from being totally unraveled.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) currently ranks as the third most common cause of death. As the primary malignancy of the liver is directly related to an underlying liver condition, its incidence and profile are expected to change soon. While effective prevention programs and antiviral therapies for hepatitis B and C will lower the incidence of HCC, emerging socioeconomic issues will deliver new at-risk populations. Moreover, diagnostic techniques and protocols have undergone significant advancements. Reliance on contrast enhanced ultrasound has been re-evaluated, imaging methods being considered as sufficient diagnostic tools. Molecular characterization remains desirable, since chemotherapeutic agents still have limited applicability. In light of recent diagnostic advancements and novel therapeutic solutions, it is our belief that a comprehensive update on recent paradigm shifts and interesting upcoming developments is highly needed.
This book offers comprehensive information on the new and rapidly evolving science of identifying and targeting senescent cells, and on the exciting prospect of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities for stopping, and even reversing, the progression of disease and the deterioration of the human body due to ageing. According to recent United Nations data, by 2050 one in six people worldwide will be older than age 65, with peaks rising to one in four people in Europe and North America. Remarkably, the number of persons aged 80 years or older is expected to triple, from 143 million in 2019 to 426 million in 2050. First documented in the 1960s, the concept of cellular senescence as an underlying cause of ageing has been established in the course of the last decade. Using genetically engineered mouse models, researchers have demonstrated that the selective elimination of senescent cells can block and even reverse a number of age-related dysfunctions and pathologies, promoting both better health and longer life in the elderly. These include cardiovascular diseases; neurological disorders; type 1 and type 2 diabetes; inflammatory diseases; fibrosis; geriatric syndromes; chronic diseases resulting in organ dysfunction; the integrity of the musculoskeletal system; and cancer. Some senolytic agents have already progressed into trials. These include UBX0101 for the treatment of osteoarthritis (now in phase II), a cocktail of dasatinib and quercetin for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic kidney disease, and ABT-263 in combination with senescence-inducing chemotherapies for the treatment of advanced solid tumours. In addition, the book discusses pathways to early phase clinical trials and translational approaches in medicine and ageing, highlighting new opportunities as well as current limitations, challenges and alternatives. Given its scope, it will benefit a broad audience of advanced educators, researchers, graduate students and practitioners.
When we worked on Down Syndrome brain in the past we have been focus ing on adult brain. This was a major step forwards as most work on Down Syndrome was carried out on fibroblasts or other tissues and, moreover, we introduced proteomics to identify and quantify brain protein expression. We considered evaluation of brain protein expression in Down Syndrome brain by and by more important than gene hunting at the nucleic acid level realiz ing the long unpredictable way from RNA to protein. The availability of fetal samples along with the proteomic appproach stimulated and reinforced studies on Down Syndrome brain. And indeed, it was found out that some observations on aberrant protein expression in adult Down Syndrome brain could not be verified in the fetal samples indi cating that neurodegeneration in adult Down Syndrome brain may have been responsible rather than trisomy 21. Using brains from the early second trimester of gestation led to the generation of a series of clues for the under standing of aberrant wiring of the brain in Down Syndrome and enabled the determination of altered key functions in early life; e. g. undetectably low drebrin was observed in Down Syndrome cortex, an integral constituent and marker for dendritic spines, main effectors of cross-talk between neurons. In addition, evaluation of the nature of the neuronal deficits in terms of neuro transmission markers could be established as well as neuronal density in fetal Down Syndrome cortex.
Aging inspired a large number of theories trying to rationalize the aging process common to all living beings. In this publication the most important environmental and intrinsic mechanisms involved in the aging process and in its pathological consequences are reviewed. Furthermore theoretical and experimental evidence of the most important theoretical elements based on Darwinian evolution, cellular aging, role of cell membranes, free radicals and oxidative processes, receptor-mediated reactions, the extracellular matrix and immune functions as well as the most important environmental and intrinsic mechanisms involved in the aging process and in its pathological consequences are discussed. These presentations of theories and related experimental facts give a global overview of up to date concepts of the biology of the aging process and are of essential reading not only for specialists in this field but also for practitioners of scientific, medical, social and experimental sciences.
This book covers the origins and subsequent history of research results in which attempts have been made to clarify issues related to cellular ageing, senescence, and age-related pathologies including cancer. Cellular Ageing and Replicative Senescence revisits more than fifty-five years of research based on the discovery that cultured normal cells are mortal and the interpretation that this phenomenon is associated with the origins of ageing. The mortality of normal cells and the immortality of cancer cells were also reported to have in vivo counterparts. Thus began the field of cytogerontology. Cellular Ageing and Replicative Senescence is organized into five sections: history and origins; serial passaging and progressive ageing; cell cycle arrest and senescence; system modulation; and recapitulation and future expectations. These issues are discussed by leading thinkers and researchers in biogerontology and cytogerontology. This collection of articles provides state-of-the-art information, and will encourage students, teachers, health care professionals and others interested in the biology of ageing to explore the fascinating and challenging question of why and how our cells age, and what can and cannot be done about it.
This book is devoted to innovative medicine, comprising the proceedings of the Uehara Memorial Foundation Symposium 2014. It remains extremely rare for the findings of basic research to be developed into clinical applications, and it takes a long time for the process to be achieved. The task of advancing the development of basic research into clinical reality lies with translational science, yet the field seems to struggle to find a way to move forward. To create innovative medical technology, many steps need to be taken: development and analysis of optimal animal models of human diseases, elucidation of genomic and epidemiological data, and establishment of “proof of concept”. There is also considerable demand for progress in drug research, new surgical procedures, and new clinical devices and equipment. While the original research target may be rare diseases, it is also important to apply those findings more broadly to common diseases. The book covers a wide range of topics and is organized into three complementary parts. The first part is basic research for innovative medicine, the second is translational research for innovative medicine, and the third is new technology for innovative medicine. This book helps to understand innovative medicine and to make progress in its realization.
This book bridges the gap between fundamental and translational research in the area of heart disease. It describes a multidisciplinary approach, and demonstrates biochemical mechanisms associated with dysregulation of redox signaling, which leads heart disease. Presenting recent studies on improved forms of ROS scavenging enzymes; specific inhibitors for different ROS generating enzymes; and oxidant induced signaling pathways and their antagonists that allow subtle modulation of redox signaling, it also discusses the spatial and temporal aspects of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system, which are of vital importance in developing better strategies for treating heart disease. Each chapter offers researchers valuable insights into identifying targets for drug development for different types of heart disease.
Cancer is clearly an age-related disease. Recent research in both aging and cancer has demonstrated the complex interaction between the two phenomena. This affects a wide spectrum of research and practice, anywhere from basic research to health care organization. Core examples of these close associations are addressed in this book. Starting with basic research, the first chapters cover cancer development, mTOR inhibition, senescent cells altering the tumor microenvironment, and immune senescence affecting cancer vaccine response. Taking into account the multidisciplinarity of geriatric oncology, several chapters focus on geriatric and oncologic aspects in patient assessment, treatment options, nursing and exercise programs. The book is rounded off by a discussion on the impact of the metabolic syndrome illustrating the interactions between comorbidity and cancer and a chapter on frailty.This book provides the reader with insights that will hopefully foster his or her reflection in their own research and practice to further the development of this most exciting field. Given the aging of the population worldwide and the high prevalence of cancer, it is essential reading not only for oncologists and geriatricians but for all health practitioners.
The topic of skin aging is of growing importance to all working in the field of dermatology, aesthetic medicine and cosmetic medicine. Two internationally well-known and leading experts in the field present a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on all aspects of skin aging. With its clear, concise and reader-friendly format this book has all the potential to become the Bible of skin aging. Every specialist interested in dermatology, aesthetic medicine, cosmetic science, cutaneous biology and aging research will find indispensable information of great value for his or her daily work.
|Author||: Rakesh Sharma|
|Publisher||: BoD – Books on Demand|
|Release Date||: 2018-05-02|
|ISBN 10||: 1789230101|
|Pages||: 352 pages|
Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering is a concise book on applied methods of stem cell differentiation and optimization using tissue engineering methods. These methods offer immediate use in clinical regenerative medicine. The present volume will serve the purpose of applied stem cell differentiation optimization methods in clinical research projects, as well as be useful to relatively experienced stem cell scientists and clinicians who might wish to develop their stem cell clinical centers or research labs further. Chapters are arranged in the order of basic concepts of stem cell differentiation, clinical applications of pluripotent stem cells in skin, cardiac, bone, dental, obesity centers, followed by tissue engineering, new materials used, and overall evaluation with their permitted legal status.
|Author||: K. Lenhard Rudolph|
|Publisher||: Springer Science & Business Media|
|Release Date||: 2007-11-07|
|ISBN 10||: 354073709X|
|Pages||: 330 pages|
Telomere shortening represents one of the basic aspects of ageing and telomere dysfunction could contribute to the accumulation of DNA damage during ageing. This book summarizes evidence and data indicating that telomere dysfunction influences human ageing, diseases and cancer. The book describes our current knowledge on checkpoints that limit cellular lifespan and survival in response to telomere dysfunction. There is special focus on adult stem cells.
Cellular AGING AND CELL DEATH Edited by Nikki J. Holbrook, George R. Martin, and Richard A.Lockshin Cellular Aging and Cell Death provides a thorough understanding ofthe mechanisms responsible for cellular aging, covering the recentresearch on programmed cell death and senescence, and describingtheir role in the control of cell proliferation and the agingprocess. This one-of-a-kind book is the first to combine the twohottest research areas of cell biology into one comprehensivetext. Leading experts contribute to give readers an authoritativeoverview of the distinct fields of cellular aging and programmedcell death, as well as to demonstrate how both fields are criticalto understanding the aging process. They address the large andgrowing interest in apoptosis, especially with regard to themolecular signals that induce and regulate programmed cell death,and the role of apoptosis in a variety of age-associated diseasesand disabilities. Throughout the book, a strong emphasis is placedon the interrelationship of the molecular, cellular, andphysiological aspects of senescence. Individual chapters discuss such topics as the role and regulationof apoptosis in development, the potential impact of cell death onsuch postmitotic tissues as nerve and muscle, and suggest thatprogrammed cell death plays an important role in both pathologicaland nonpathological aspects of aging, including neurodegenerativediseases. One important chapter focuses on the most recent research involvingthe study of telomeres, whose reduction in length with age and celldivision may underlie cellular senescence. The subject of neuronalcell death is also put into the perspective of aging. Cellular Aging and Cell Death bridges the rapidly growing fields ofcellular aging and programmed cell death. This thorough, yetconcise book will be of particular interest to graduate studentsand researchers within the fields of cell and developmentalbiology, neurobiology, immunology, and physiology. Physicians andmedical students involved in the fields of gerontology andpathology will also find this an informative reference.
The endothelium enables communication between blood and tissues and is actively involved in cardiovascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as an early step in the development of cardiovascular diseases: respectively, endothelium represents a potential therapeutic niche with multiple targets. The purpose of the book is to point out some recent findings of endothelial physiology and pathophysiology emphasizing various aspects of endothelial dysfunction connected to the body's internal and external environment. While basic features of the endothelium are presented in an introductory chapter, the authors of the following 17 chapters have provided extensive insight into some selected topics of endothelial (dys)function. The book would hopefully be useful for anyone interested in recapitulating endothelial (patho)physiology and expanding knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction, relevant also for further clinical investigations.
Despite decades of attention on building a global HIV research and programming agenda, HIV in older populations has generally been neglected until recently. This new book focuses on HIV and aging in the context of ageism with regard to prevention, treatment guidelines, funding, and the engagement of communities and health and social service organizations. The lack of perceived HIV risk in late adulthood among older people themselves, as well on the part of providers and society in general, has led to a lack of investment in education, testing, and programmatic responses. Ageism perpetuates the invisibility of older adults and, in turn, renders current medical and social service systems unprepared to respond to patients’ needs. While ageism may lead to some advantages – discounts for services, for example – it is the negative aspects that must be addressed when determining the appropriate community-level response to the epidemic.
This book describes current methods for the identification and characterization of the major hallmarks of senescent cells. Chapters focus on the high heterogeneity of the senescence phenotypes, and techniques to induce and identify specific senescence programs. Additional chapters describe cellular and mouse models in which is possible to study the complex cell and non-cell autonomous functions of senescent cells. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Cellular Senescence: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging: A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series focuses on the nutritional issues associated with aging and the important metabolic consequences of diet, nutrition, and health. The book is subdivided into four parts that reflect the impact of nutrition from a biomolecular level to individual health. In Part One, chapters explore the general aspects of aging, aging phenotypes, and relevant aspects of nutrition related to the elderly and healthy aging. Part Two includes molecular and cellular targets of nutrition in aging, with chapters exploring lipid peroxidation, inflammaging, anabolic and catabolic signaling, epigenetics, DNA damage and repair, redox homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity, among others. Part Three looks at system-level and organ targets of nutrition in aging, including a variety of tissues, systems, and diseases, such as immune function, the cardiovascular system, the brain and dementia, muscle, bone, lung, and many others. Finally, Part Four focuses on the health effects of specific dietary compounds and dietary interventions in aging, including vitamin D, retinol, curcumin, folate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, vitamin B, fish oil, vitamin E, resveratrol, polyphenols, vegetables, and fruit, as well as the current nutritional recommendations. Offers updated information and a perspectives on important future developments to different professionals involved in the basic and clinical research on all major nutritional aspects of aging Explores how nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of aging across body systems Investigates the molecular and genetic basis of aging and cellular senescence through the lens of the rapidly evolving field of molecular nutrition
Features that characterize the aging process include the gradual accumulation of cell damage after prolonged exposure to oxidative and inflammatory events over a lifetime. In addition to the accretion of lesions, the intrinsic levels of pro-oxidant and aberrant immune responses are elevated with age. These adverse events are often further enhanced by the chronic and slow progressing diseases that characterize the senescent brain and cardiovascular system. The incidence of some disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular diseases are sufficiently prevalent in the extreme elderly that these disorders can arguably be considered "normal". Aging and Aging-Related Disorders examines the interface between normal and pathological aging, and illustrates how this border can sometimes be diffuse. It explores and illustrates the processes underlying the means by which aging becomes increasingly associated with inappropriate levels of free radical activity and how this can serve as a platform for the progression of age-related diseases. The book provides chapters that examine the interactive relationship between systems in the body that can enhance or sometimes even limit cellular longevity. In addition, specific redox mechanisms in cells are discussed. Another important aspect for aging discussed here is the close relationship between the systems of the body and exposure to environmental influences of oxidative stress that can affect both cellular senescence and a cell’s nuclear DNA. What may be even more interesting to note is that these external stressors are not simply confined to illnesses usually associated with aging, but can be evident in maturing and young individuals. A broad range of internationally recognized experts have contributed to this book. Their aim is to successfully highlight emerging knowledge and therapy for the understanding of the basis and development of aging–related disorders.
As cells mature they naturally stop dividing and enter a period called senescence. But cellular senescence can also be induced prematurely by certain oncogenes involved in cancer development. Cellular senescence, a growth-arrest program that limits the lifespan of mammalian cells and prevents unlimited cell proliferation, is attracting considerable interest because of its links to tumor suppression.
This book aims to clarify the potential association between frailty and cardiovascular disease in older people. Covering the biological as well as the clinical point of view, it allows researchers and clinicians to discover the significance of this topic. The contributions cover the most important aspects in the potential relationship between frailty and cardiovascular disease. In particular, authoritative authors in this field have clarified the definition and the epidemiology of frailty and cardiovascular disease in older people. A large part of the volume is dedicated to the biological mechanisms of frailty and cardiovascular disease, trying to find those in common between these two conditions. Since this book is dedicated to both researchers and clinicians, we have proposed some chapters to the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and frailty. In this regard, the importance of geriatric evaluation in cardiac surgery for older people is well covered. Finally, the importance of cardiac rehabilitation and physical exercise is summarized, being, actually, the most important treatments for both frailty and cardiovascular disease. Written by many well-known and widely published experts in their respective fields, this book will appeal to a wide readership such as researchers in the field and clinicians, especially suited in geriatric medicine and cardiology who, every day, face frail older patients.