biological experiments in space

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Biological and Medical Research in Space
Author : David Moore,Peter Bie,Heinz Oser
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 3642610994
Pages : 569 pages
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Life Science studies in space were initially driven by the need to explore how man could survive spaceflight conditions; the effects of being launched un der high accelerations, exposed to weightlessness and radiation for different periods of time, and returned to Earth in safety. In order to substantiate the detailed knowledge of potentially adverse effects, many model experiments were launched using organisms which ranged from bacteria, plants, inverte brates, rodents and primates through to man. Although no immediate life threatening effects were found, these experiments can be considered today as the precursors to life science research in space. Many unexplained effects on these life forms were attributed to the condition of weightlessness. Most of them were poorly recorded, poorly published, or left simply with anecdotal information. Only with the advent of Skylab, and later Spacelab, did the idea emerge, and indeed the infrastructure permit, weightlessness to be considered as an ex tended tool for research into some fundamental mechanisms or processes as sociated with the effect of gravity on organisms at all levels. The initial hy pothesis to extrapolate from hypergravity through 1 x g to near 0 x g effects could no longer be retained, since many of the experiment results were seen to contradict the models or theories in the current textbooks of biology and physiology. The past decade has been dedicated primarily to exploratory research.

Plant Gravitropism
Author : Elison B Blancaflor
Publisher : Humana Press
Release Date : 2015-05-19
ISBN 10 : 9781493926961
Pages : 323 pages
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This volume provides the plant scientific community with a collection of established and recently developed experimental protocols to study plant gravitropism. The first few chapters in this book discuss topics such as methods to properly orient plant material for gravitropism studies; protocols for data collection and image analysis; and techniques to investigate ion, organelle, and auxin transporter dynamics, particularly in living cells, as the plant is responding to a change in its orientation. The next few chapters talk about topics that are essential for understanding the complexities underlying tropisms and plant movements in general, and outline basic protocols on handling ornamental flowering shoots for basic plant gravitropism studies. The book concludes with chapters that discuss plant biological studies in space in order to take advantage of unique microgravity conditions not available in Earth-based studies. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Informative and cutting-edge, Plant Gravitropism is the perfect book for researchers in the plant scientific community because it is not only useful for plant gravitropism studies, but also addresses a range of interesting problems in plant growth and development.

Biological and Medical Experiments on the Space Shuttle, 1981 - 1985
Author : Thora W. Halstead
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1986
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 180 pages
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Terrestrial Space Radiation and Its Biological Effects
Author : Percival D. McCormack,Charles E. Swenberg,Horst Bucker
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 1461315670
Pages : 864 pages
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This volume is based on the proceedings of an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) held October 1987 in Corfu, Greece. The Institute received financial support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S.A. Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, U.S.A. Department of Energy, U.S.A. Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchanstalt fur Luft und Raumfahrt e.v., Kaln, Germany The advent of the shuttle era is providing fresh impetus for large space ventures such as communication centers, solar power stations, astronomical observatories, orbiting factories, and space based radar. Such ventures will rely heavily on an extensive and prolonged human presence in space doing in-orbit construction, maintenance, and opera tion. Among the advantages of location in space are the near zero gravity environment, commanding location, and the reception of solar energy and astronomical signals unattenuated by the atmosphere. Central to long-term manned space missions are the problems associated with the effects of exposure to ionizing radiations on humans. Manned space mis sions in the past have encountered relatively benign radiation environ ments because of their very short duration and orbit configuration. However, crew stay time of up to a year has been recently achieved by the Soviet space program; and Mars missions lasting several years are under serious consideration.

Biology in Space and Life on Earth
Author : Enno Brinckmann
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2008-01-08
ISBN 10 : 9783527616992
Pages : 296 pages
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This concise yet comprehensive treatment of the effects of spaceflight on biological systems includes issues at the forefront of life sciences research, such as gravitational biology, immune system response, bone cell formation and the effects of radiation on biosystems. Edited by a leading specialist at the European Space Agency (ESA) with contributions by internationally renowned experts, the chapters are based on the latest space laboratory experiments, including those on SPACELAB, ISS, parabolic flights and unmanned research satellites. An indispensable source for biologists, medical researchers and astronautics experts alike. The results of Space flight experiments, ground controls and flight simulations pave the way for a better understanding of gravity reactions in various organisms down to molecular mechanisms. This publication marks also the beginning of a new Space flight era with the construction and exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) which provides a platform for an in-depth continuation of experiments under weightlessness in Low Earth Orbit and beyond.

Developmental Biology Research in Space
Author : N.A
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2003-07-01
ISBN 10 : 9780080494470
Pages : 296 pages
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In this volume of ASPA, devoted to developmental biology research, 9 authors from different fields of developmental biology present their investigations on various developing plant and animal models. An a priori concern in mind that weightlessness might have negative effects on developmental processes, it is encouraging to know that the overall development of various organisms tested so far is essentially correct under spaceflight conditions, leading to viable individuals with viable offspring. On the other hand, particular studies on specifically neurophysiological aspects in developing organisms reveal important flight or postflight disturbances; however it is encouraging to know that they appear to be transient only. The book contains ten chapters, giving details on how, in technical terms, experiments for spaceflights are prepared, performed and analysed and on how, in scientific terms, the available results have to be interpreted. One contribution is devoted to plant systems, five consider the overall aspects of embryonic development in invertebrates and vertebrates, two focus on neurophysiological aspects and one reports on the "mother-offspring system" in weightlessness in a mammalian model, the last chapter presents new ESA facilities and instruments to be integrated into the European research Laboratory "Columbus" of the ISS.

Into Space
Author : Thais Russomano,Lucas Rehnberg
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-05-30
ISBN 10 : 1789232201
Pages : 296 pages
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Our anatomy and physiology have been completely shaped by Earth's gravity. All body systems function in synergy with this unseen force. Yet, as we journey further and longer into space, our bodies must conform to a new reality, wherein gravity is absent or reduced, cosmic radiation threatens and our social and familial connections become distant. Into Space: A Journey of How Humans Adapt and Live in Microgravity gives an overview of some of the physiological, anatomical and cellular changes that occur in space and their effects on different body systems, such as the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal, and touches on cultural and psychosocial aspects of leaving behind family and the safety of Earth. It further addresses the complexity of manned space flights, showing how interdisciplinary this subject is and discussing the challenges that space physiologists, physicians and scientists must face as humans seek to conquer the final frontier.

Biological and Medical Research in Space
Author : David Moore,Peter Bie,Heinz Oser
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 3642610994
Pages : 569 pages
GET BOOK!

Life Science studies in space were initially driven by the need to explore how man could survive spaceflight conditions; the effects of being launched un der high accelerations, exposed to weightlessness and radiation for different periods of time, and returned to Earth in safety. In order to substantiate the detailed knowledge of potentially adverse effects, many model experiments were launched using organisms which ranged from bacteria, plants, inverte brates, rodents and primates through to man. Although no immediate life threatening effects were found, these experiments can be considered today as the precursors to life science research in space. Many unexplained effects on these life forms were attributed to the condition of weightlessness. Most of them were poorly recorded, poorly published, or left simply with anecdotal information. Only with the advent of Skylab, and later Spacelab, did the idea emerge, and indeed the infrastructure permit, weightlessness to be considered as an ex tended tool for research into some fundamental mechanisms or processes as sociated with the effect of gravity on organisms at all levels. The initial hy pothesis to extrapolate from hypergravity through 1 x g to near 0 x g effects could no longer be retained, since many of the experiment results were seen to contradict the models or theories in the current textbooks of biology and physiology. The past decade has been dedicated primarily to exploratory research.

Biology in Space and Life on Earth
Author : Enno Brinckmann
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2008-01-08
ISBN 10 : 9783527616992
Pages : 296 pages
GET BOOK!

This concise yet comprehensive treatment of the effects of spaceflight on biological systems includes issues at the forefront of life sciences research, such as gravitational biology, immune system response, bone cell formation and the effects of radiation on biosystems. Edited by a leading specialist at the European Space Agency (ESA) with contributions by internationally renowned experts, the chapters are based on the latest space laboratory experiments, including those on SPACELAB, ISS, parabolic flights and unmanned research satellites. An indispensable source for biologists, medical researchers and astronautics experts alike. The results of Space flight experiments, ground controls and flight simulations pave the way for a better understanding of gravity reactions in various organisms down to molecular mechanisms. This publication marks also the beginning of a new Space flight era with the construction and exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) which provides a platform for an in-depth continuation of experiments under weightlessness in Low Earth Orbit and beyond.

Fundamentals of Space Biology
Author : Gilles Clément,K. Slenzka
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-10-28
ISBN 10 : 0387379401
Pages : 376 pages
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This book examines the effects of spaceflight at cellular and organism levels. Research on the effects of gravity - or its absence - and ionizing radiation on the evolution, development, and function of living organisms is presented in layman's terms. The book describes the benefits of space biology for basic and applied research to support human space exploration and the advantages of space as a laboratory for scientific, technological, and commercial research.

Medical and Biological Research in Space
Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences. Subcommittee on Aerospace Technology and National Needs
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1976
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 287 pages
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Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board,Space Studies Board,Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2012-01-30
ISBN 10 : 0309163846
Pages : 464 pages
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More than four decades have passed since a human first set foot on the Moon. Great strides have been made in our understanding of what is required to support an enduring human presence in space, as evidenced by progressively more advanced orbiting human outposts, culminating in the current International Space Station (ISS). However, of the more than 500 humans who have so far ventured into space, most have gone only as far as near-Earth orbit, and none have traveled beyond the orbit of the Moon. Achieving humans' further progress into the solar system had proved far more difficult than imagined in the heady days of the Apollo missions, but the potential rewards remain substantial. During its more than 50-year history, NASA's success in human space exploration has depended on the agency's ability to effectively address a wide range of biomedical, engineering, physical science, and related obstacles--an achievement made possible by NASA's strong and productive commitments to life and physical sciences research for human space exploration, and by its use of human space exploration infrastructures for scientific discovery. The Committee for the Decadal Survey of Biological and Physical Sciences acknowledges the many achievements of NASA, which are all the more remarkable given budgetary challenges and changing directions within the agency. In the past decade, however, a consequence of those challenges has been a life and physical sciences research program that was dramatically reduced in both scale and scope, with the result that the agency is poorly positioned to take full advantage of the scientific opportunities offered by the now fully equipped and staffed ISS laboratory, or to effectively pursue the scientific research needed to support the development of advanced human exploration capabilities. Although its review has left it deeply concerned about the current state of NASA's life and physical sciences research, the Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space is nevertheless convinced that a focused science and engineering program can achieve successes that will bring the space community, the U.S. public, and policymakers to an understanding that we are ready for the next significant phase of human space exploration. The goal of this report is to lay out steps and develop a forward-looking portfolio of research that will provide the basis for recapturing the excitement and value of human spaceflight--thereby enabling the U.S. space program to deliver on new exploration initiatives that serve the nation, excite the public, and place the United States again at the forefront of space exploration for the global good.

Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics
Author : Cornelius A. Tobias,Paul Todd
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
ISBN 10 : 1483273865
Pages : 664 pages
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Space Radiation Biology and Related Topics provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of space radiation biology. This book discusses space radiation hazards as well as the importance of natural radiations in the processes of biogenesis. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of radiobiology. This text then discusses the theoretical treatments of the chronic radiation response and the applicability of some of its features in extended manned space missions. Other chapters review the literature on models for recovery from radiation damage to some cellular systems. This book discusses as well the effects of radiations on mammals, with emphasis on those effects pertinent to the space-flight situation. The final chapter deals with the safety of nuclear power in space and explains the three types of nuclear devices designed for power production in space. This book is a valuable resource for radiologists, radiobiologists, and radiotherapists.

Advances in Space Biology and Medicine
Author : S.L. Bonting
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1999-12-20
ISBN 10 : 9780080877310
Pages : 250 pages
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During the past several years there has been a shortage of flight opportunities for biological and medical projects. And those that were available usually had severe restrictions on instrumentation, number of subjects, duration, time allotted for performing the experiments, a possibility for repetition of experiments. It is our hope and expectation that this will change once the international Space Station is in full operation. The advantages of a permanent space station, already demonstrated by the Russian Mir station, are continuous availability of expert crew and a wide range of equipment, possibility of long-term experiments where this is waranted, increased numbers of subjects through larger laboratory space, proper controls in the large 1-G centrifuge, easier repeatability of experiments when needed. The limited number of flight opportunities during recent years probably explains why it has taken so long to acquire a sufficient number of high quality contributions for this seventh volume of Advances in Space Biology and Medicine. While initially the series wassailed at annually appearing volumes, we are now down to a biannual appearance. Hopefully, it will be possible to return to annual volumes in the future when results from space station experimentation at beginning to pour in. The first three chapters of this volume deal with muscle. Fejtek and Wassersug provide a survey of all studies on muscle of rodents flown in space, and include an interesting demography of this aspect of space research. Riley reviews our current knowledge of the effects of long-term spaceflight and re-entry on skeletal muscle, and considers the questions still to be answered before we can be satisfied that long-term space missions, such as on the space station, can be safely undertaken. Stein reviews our understanding of the nutritional and hormonal aspects of muscle loss in spaceflight, and concludes that the protein loss in space could be deleterious to health during flight and after return. Strollo summarizes our understanding of the major endocrine systems on the ground, then considers what we know about their functioning in space, concluding that there is much to be learned about the changes taking place during spaceflight. The many problems of providing life support (oxygen regeneration and food supply) during extended stay on the Moon, on Mars, or in space by means of plant cultivation are discussed by Salisbury. The challenges of utilizing electrophoresis in microgravity for the separation of cells and proteins are illustrated and explained by Bauer and colleagues. Finally, the chapter on teaching of space life sciences by Schmitt shows that this field of science has come of age, but also that its multidisciplinary character poses interesting challenges to teaching it.

1984-85 NASA Space/gravitational Biology Accomplishments
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1985
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 135 pages
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Individual technical summaries of research projects of NASA's Space/Gravitational Biology Program are presented. The summaries for each project include a description of the research, a listing of the accomplishments, and an explanation of the significance of the accomplishments. Bibliographies for each project are also included.

The 1987-1988 NASA Space/gravitational Biology Accomplishments
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1988
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 200 pages
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Biotechnology in Space
Author : Günter Ruyters,Christian Betzel,Daniela Grimm
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-12-21
ISBN 10 : 3319640542
Pages : 109 pages
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This book summarizes the early successes, drawbacks and accomplishments in cell biology and cell biotechnology achieved by the latest projects performed on the International Space Station ISS. It also depicts outcomes of experiments in tissue engineering, cancer research and drug design and reveals the chances that research in Space offers for medical application on Earth. This SpringerBriefs volume provides an overview on the latest international activities in Space and gives an outlook on the potential of biotechnological research in Space in future. This volume is written for students and researchers in Biomedicine, Biotechnology and Pharmacology and may specifically be of interest to scientists with focus on protein sciences, crystallization, tissue engineering, drug design and cancer research.

Publications of the NASA Space Biology Program for 1980 - 1984
Author : Linda G. Pleasant
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1984
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 99 pages
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Publications of the NASA Space Biology Program for 1980-1984
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1984
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 103 pages
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NASA Space Biology Accomplishments, 1982
Author : Thora W. Halstead
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 1983
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 119 pages
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