Biological Chirality describes this occurrence, its history, and early research around the topic. The work covers analytical methods for observing the phenomenon, providing current techniques and practice and discussing the asymmetric morphology of certain living organisms, such as the position of the heart and liver in humans and the exceptions to biological homochirality seen in D-Amino Acids. In addition, it explores the requirement of enantioselectivity prepared pharmaceuticals to address enantioselectivities biomolecules, a major challenge in today's organic chemistry. Finally, the work considers the possible origin of biological homochirality, as well as the outlook for future research in this area. Describes the history of biological chirality research, its possible origins, and future exploration areas Discusses asymmetric exceptions in morphology and D-Amino Acids Explores the critical implications of enantioselective biomolecules for preparative organic chemistry with a goal of developing effective pharmaceuticals
Following on from Advances in BioChirality, Progress in Biological Chirality provides a unique summary and review of the most recent developments in the field of biochirality. Living organisms use only one enantiomer of chiral molecules in the majority of biologically important processes. The exact origin and mechanisms for this surprising selectivity are not yet known. This book discusses current research aimed at identifying the scientific reasons that may contribute to this phenomenon. Progress in Biological Chirality takes an interdisciplinary approach to this exciting field, covering a wide range of topics, such as, theory, palaeontology and food technology, to name but a few. This book presents findings via a broad spectrum of scientific approaches making it an excellent overview of Biological Chirality, suitable for postgraduate students, practitioners and researchers in the field of chemistry, biochemistry, biology, palaeontology, and food science with an interest in Chirality. This book contains 32 chapters written by Authors, who are leading authorities in the field Presents the most recent research taking place in this highly challenging field Contains both reference material for the specialist and provides an overview for those who are interested in the fundamental problems of biology and chemistry
An integrated view of chiral drugs—from concept and synthesisto pharmaceutical properties Chirality greatly influences a drug's biological and pharmacological properties. In an effort to achieve more predictable results from chiral drugs, the Food and Drug Administration now requires that these medicines be as pure as possible, which places great demands on drug synthesis, purification, analysis, and testing. To assist researchers in acquiring the essential knowledge to meet these rigid guidelines, Chiral Drugs focuses on three vital chiral technologies—asymmetric synthesis, biocatalytic process, and chiral resolution—to offer details on the basic concepts, key developments, and recent trends in chiral drug discovery, along with: The history of chiral drugs development and industrial applications of chiral technologies A section listing twenty-five approved or advanced-trial chiral drugs that lists each drug name, chemical name and properties, a representative synthetic pathway, pharmacological characterizations, and references An interdisciplinary approach combining synthetic organic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacology Nearly two-thirds of the drugs on today's market are chiral drugs. Reducing and eliminating their negative characteristics is an ongoing and serious challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. With its well-balanced approach to covering each important aspect of chirality, Chiral Drugs champions important strategies for tipping the medical scale in a positive direction for the production of more effective—and safer—drugs.
This book brings together the theoretical, commercial, and practical aspects of chirality and biological activity of drugs and acts as a ready reference for the effects of enantiomers of drug substances.
Chirality is widely studied and omnipresent in biological molecules. However, how the retention of enantiomeric forms persists in many life processes without racemization is still unclear, and the molecular understanding of the stringent chiral specificity in enzymatic reactions is sparse. An overview of the influence of chirality in driving reactions within enzymatic cavities, Chirality in Biological Nanospaces: Reactions in Active Sites covers: Influences of molecular chirality on the structure of the active site and network of interactions to drive reactions with improved speed, accuracy, and efficiency The conserved features of the organization of the active site structures of enzymes The intricate interplay of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and van der Waals interactions Interactions between the active site residues and the substrate molecules Despite being time-consuming and expensive, trial-and-error is often the primary method used to develop synthetic enzymes. This book describes methods that combine crystallographic studies with electronic structure-based computational analysis. These methods may lead to future elucidation of new drugs that can target biological active sites with better efficacy and can be used to design custom-made novel biocytes with improved efficiency.
Chirality is a fundamental, persistent, but often overlooked feature of all living organisms on the molecular level as well as on the macroscopic scale. The high degree of preference for only one of two possible mirror image forms in Nature, often called biological homochirality is a puzzling, and not yet fully understood, phenomenon. This book covers biological homochirality from an interdisciplinary approach - contributions range from synthetic chemists, theoretical topologists and physicists, from palaeontologists and biologists to space scientists and representatives of the pharmaceutical and materials industries. Topics covered include - theory of biochirality, origins of biochirality, autocatalysis with amplification of chirality, macroscopic (present) biochirality, fossil records of chiral organisms - paleochirality, extraterrestrial origin of chirality, exceptions to the rule of biological homochirality, D-amino acids, chemical transfer of chirality, PV effects, and polarised radiation chemistry.
|Author||: Jie Song|
|Release Date||: 1999|
|Pages||: 332 pages|
Early History of the Recognition of Molecular Biochirality, by Joseph Gal, Pedro Cintas Synthesis and Chirality of Amino Acids Under Interstellar Conditions, by Chaitanya Giri, Fred Goesmann, Cornelia Meinert, Amanda C. Evans, Uwe J. Meierhenrich Chemical and Physical Models for the Emergence of Biological Homochirality, by son E. Hein, Dragos Gherase, Donna G. Blackmond Biomolecules at Interfaces: Chiral, Naturally, by Arántzazu González-Campo and David B. Amabilino Stochastic Mirror Symmetry Breaking: Theoretical Models and Simulation of Experiments, by Celia Blanco, David Hochberg Self-Assembly of Dendritic Dipeptides as a Model of Chiral Selection in Primitive Biological Systems, by Brad M. Rosen, Cécile Roche, Virgil Percec Chirality and Protein Biosynthesis, by Sindrila Dutta Banik, Nilashis Nandi
Covering every essential element in the development of chiral products, this reference provides a solid overview of the formulation, biopharmaceutical characteristics, and regulatory issues impacting the production of these pharmaceuticals. It supports researchers as they evaluate the pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological characteristics of specific enantiomers and chiral drug compounds and addresses in one convenient reference all the major challenges pertaining to drug chirality that have been neglected in the literature. Chirality in Drug Design and Development collects the latest studies from an interdisciplinary team of experts on chiral drug design.
Reporting on the latest advances in molecular asymmetry, it explores the development of stereochemical analysis and its applications to the biosciences. Applications to pharmacology and therapeutics, food and beverage chemistry, the study of pesticides and other zenobiotics are also covered. Chapters examine the molecular principles of chiral recognition and biological selectivity and discuss stereoselectivity in drug action and metabolism. Some of the specific issues covered include: gas and liquid chromatography of enantiomers on chiral stationary phases; stereochemical assays of chiral drugs; pyrethroid isomers; configurational modification of peptide hormones; chiral fruit flavors; and human pharmacokinetics of enantiomers administered as racemates.
As pharmaceutical companies look to develop single enantiomers as drug candidates, chemists are increasingly faced with the problems associated with this subclass of organic synthesis. "The Handbook of Chiral Chemicals, Second Edition" highlights the problems associated with the production of chiral compounds on a commercial scale. The handbook first elaborates upon starting materials obtained from a 'chiral pool', which can be derived from natural products. Then it explains methods and reactions that can introduce or influence stereogenic centers, particularly asymmetric hydrogenations, oxidations, pericyclic reactions, and enzymatic methods.While hydrogenations have been the most widely employed approach for the large-scale synthesis of several commercial compounds, the search for the ideal catalyst has consistently led researchers to enzymes present in biological systems. Several chapters concentrate on understanding how to manipulate enzymes for catalyzing new reactions for taking new substrates. Other significant topics include chiral auxiliaries, chromatographic techniques, enantiomers-specific reactions, and resolution. This second edition updates all its chapters, illustrating the speed of development in this field, and features new chapters that highlight successful approaches in an industrial setting. "The Handbook of Chiral Chemicals, Second Edition" is a guide to advances in the field that result in more efficient and cost-effective synthesis of chiral chemicals.
In 1978, Fred Hoyle proposed that interstellar comets carrying several viruses landed on Earth as part of the panspermia hypotheses. With respect to life, the origin of homochirality on Earth has been the greatest mystery because life cannot exist without molecular asymmetry. Many scientists have proposed several possible hypotheses to answer this long-standing L-D question. Previously, Martin Gardner raised the question about mirror symmetry and broken mirror symmetry in terms of the homochirality question in his monographs (1964 and 1990). Possible scenarios for the L-D issue can be categorized into (i) Earth and exoterrestrial origins, (ii) by-chance and necessity mechanisms, and (iii) mirror-symmetrical and non-mirror-symmetrical forces as physical and chemical origins. These scenarios should involve further great amplification mechanisms, enabling a pure L- or D-world.