Biojet Fuel in Aviation Applications: Production, Usage and Impact of Biofuels introduces readers to the various modeling techniques of incremental and kinematic hardening plasticity for accurate calculation of stress rates, strain rates, and fatigue life prediction. It provides practical guidelines on how to calibrate material models to experimental data as well as how to implement numerical codes when theoretical material models need to be used in numerical and finite element analysis. It also provides background on the underlying fundamentals of incremental plasticity theory, preparing readers to better grasp more sophisticated plasticity theories that they'll encounter. It covers non-monotonic loading, physical mechanisms of plastic strains, and provides precise descriptions of various plasticity models, such as Armstrong-Frederick, Chaboche,and Mroz-Garud. The book also includes applications of various plasticity models in real-world settings as well as MATLAB and plasticity model codes for calculating local stress and strain rates and distribution. Outlines modeling techniques for accurate calculation of material stress rates, strain rates, and fatigue life Covers the theoretical fundamentals of incremental plasticity allowing for better understanding of more complicated plasticity theories Includes an appendix with codes for calculating local stress and strain rates and distribution Discusses applications of various kinematic hardening models such as Armstrong-Frederick, Chaboche, Mroz-Garud
The aviation sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world, at 2% of the human-induced total. The sector's transition to sustainable, renewable fuels, therefore, is crucial to meet the international climate targets set forth in the 2015 Paris Agreement. This brief examines how the expansion of biofuels for jet aircraft can reduce emissions substantially compared to fossil-based jet fuel.
The edited volume presents the progress of first and second generation biofuel production technology in selected countries. Possibility of producing alternative fuels containing biocomponents and selected research methods of biofuels exploitation characteristics (also aviation fuels) was characterized. The book shows also some aspects of the environmental impact of the production and biofuels using, and describes perspectives of biofuel production technology development. It provides the review of biorefinery processes with a particular focus on pretreatment methods of selected primary and secondary raw materials. The discussion includes also a possibility of sustainable development of presented advanced biorefinery processes.
|Author||: Lasse Rosendahl|
|Publisher||: Woodhead Publishing|
|Release Date||: 2017-11-14|
|ISBN 10||: 0081010257|
|Pages||: 380 pages|
Direct Thermochemical Liquefaction for Energy Applications presents the state-of-the-art of the value chains associated with these biomass conversion technologies. It covers multiple feedstock availability and feedstock composition impact on process chemistry and product quality and composition. Expert authors from around the world explore co-processing benefits, process parameters, implementation and scaling, upgrading to drop-in liquid biofuels or integration into existing petrochemical refinery infrastructure. Finally, these topics are put into a sustainability perspective by establishing an LCA framework for this type of process. Its focus on implementation based on the most comprehensive knowledge makes this book particularly useful for researchers and graduate students from all sorts of background working in the field of biomass and biofuels. It is also a valuable reference for engineers working to commercialize DTL technologies, engineering specialists designing process equipment, refinery professionals and developers. Focuses on implementation and scaling of direct thermochemical liquefaction technologies for biomass conversion into biofuels Covers the state-of-the-art of the technologies, as well as technical and sustainability implementation aspects Includes new approaches and concepts developed around the world within the different DTL technologies
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board,Committee on Propulsion and Energy Systems to Reduce Commercial Aviation Carbon Emissions|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2016-08-09|
|ISBN 10||: 0309440998|
|Pages||: 122 pages|
The primary human activities that release carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere are the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) to generate electricity, the provision of energy for transportation, and as a consequence of some industrial processes. Although aviation CO2 emissions only make up approximately 2.0 to 2.5 percent of total global annual CO2 emissions, research to reduce CO2 emissions is urgent because (1) such reductions may be legislated even as commercial air travel grows, (2) because it takes new technology a long time to propagate into and through the aviation fleet, and (3) because of the ongoing impact of global CO2 emissions. Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research develops a national research agenda for reducing CO2 emissions from commercial aviation. This report focuses on propulsion and energy technologies for reducing carbon emissions from large, commercial aircraftâ€" single-aisle and twin-aisle aircraft that carry 100 or more passengersâ€"because such aircraft account for more than 90 percent of global emissions from commercial aircraft. Moreover, while smaller aircraft also emit CO2, they make only a minor contribution to global emissions, and many technologies that reduce CO2 emissions for large aircraft also apply to smaller aircraft. As commercial aviation continues to grow in terms of revenue-passenger miles and cargo ton miles, CO2 emissions are expected to increase. To reduce the contribution of aviation to climate change, it is essential to improve the effectiveness of ongoing efforts to reduce emissions and initiate research into new approaches.
This book provides a detailed overview of aspects related to the overall provision chain for biokerosene as part of the global civil aviation business. Starting with a review of the current market situation for aviation fuels and airplanes and their demands, it then presents in-depth descriptions of classical and especially new types of non-edible biomass feedstock suitable for biokerosene provision. Subsequent chapters discuss those fuel provision processes that are already available and those still under development based on various biomass feedstock materials, and present e.g. an overview of the current state of the art in the production of a liquid biomass-based fuel fulfilling the specifications for kerosene. Further, given the growing interest of the aviation industry and airlines in biofuels for aviation, the experiences of an air-carrier are presented. In closing, the book provides a market outlook for biokerosene. Addressing a broad range of aspects related to the pros and cons of biokerosene as a renewable fuel for aviation, the book offers a unique resource.
This book collects recent results about research activities on zeolites, from synthesis to application. It is composed of two sections. The first is devoted to articles and brief review articles on the synthesis of zeolite from fly ash and final application of these newly formed minerals to solve environmental problems. The second part of the book provides useful information on different applications both of natural and synthetic zeolites ranging from environmental pollution to industrial and commercial applications. The performance of zeolite molecular sieves, hollow titanium zeolites and luminescent zeolites is interesting considering the new frontiers reached by the research on zeolites. This book is a useful instrument for researchers, teachers and students who are interested in investigating innovative aspects of the studies on zeolite.
This book offers an insight into three promising and innovative pathways for the biological production of biodiesel, ethanol and methane.
This volume focuses on the prospects of the conversion of biomass into biofuels including ethanol, butanol, biogas, biohydrogen, biodiesel, syn-gas and other useful products. Biomass-derived fuels have gained tremendous attention worldwide. However, due to high raw material and processing costs, biofuels produced from lignocelluloses have been found to be more expensive than conventional fuels. Therefore, a concept of biorefining has been introduced, where more than one product or each and every component of biomass may be derived into useful products in a manner of petroleum refinery.
|Author||: Fred Ghatala|
|Release Date||: 2020-04-30|
|ISBN 10||: 9781619771000|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Biofuels for Aviation: Feedstocks, Technology and Implementation presents the issues surrounding the research and use of biofuels for aviation, such as policy, markets, certification and performance requirements, life cycle assessment, and the economic and technical barriers to their full implementation. Readers involved in bioenergy and aviation sectors—research, planning, or policy making activities—will benefit from this thorough overview. The aviation industry’s commitment to reducing GHG emissions along with increasing oil prices have sparked the need for renewable and affordable energy sources tailored to this sector’s very specific needs. As jet engines cannot be readily electrified, turning to biofuels is the most viable option. However, aviation is a type of transportation for which traditional biofuels, such as bioethanol and biodiesel, do not fulfill key fuel requirements. Therefore, different solutions to this situation are being researched and tested around the globe, which makes navigating this scenario particularly challenging. This book guides readers through this intricate subject, bringing them up to speed with its current status and future prospects both from the academic and the industry point of view. Science and technology chapters delve into the technical aspects of the currently tested and the most promising technology in development, as well as their respective feedstocks and the use of additives as a way of adapting them to meet certain specifications. Conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch are explored and their results are assessed for current and future viability. Presents the current status of biofuels for the aviation sector, including technologies that are currently in use and the most promising future technologies, their production processes and viability Explains the requirements for certification and performance of aviation fuels and how that can be achieved by biofuels Explores the economic and policy issues, as well as life cycle assessment, a comparative techno-economic analysis of promising technologies and a roadmap to the future Explores conversion processes such as hydrotreatment, synthetic biology, pyrolysis, hydrothermal liquefaction and Fisher-Tropsch