Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage: Using Natural Resources for Sustainable Development presents the technologies associated with bioenergy and CCS and its applicability as an emissions reduction tool. The book explores existing climate policies and current carbon capture and storage technologies. Sections offer an overview of several routes to use biomass and produce bioenergy through processes with low or even negative CO2 emissions. Associated technology and the results of recent research studies to improve the sustainability of the processes are described, pointing out future trends and needs. This book can be used by bioenergy engineering researchers in industry and academia and by professionals and researchers in carbon capture and storage. Presents the most recent technologies in use and future trends in research and policy Examines the bioenergy production and biomass processing value chains, including biorefining, negative emission technologies and the use of microalgae Includes techno-economic analysis and sustainability assessment of the technologies discussed, as well as an overview of the latest research results
|Author||: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Geoengineering Climate: Technical Evaluation and Discussion of Impacts|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2015-06-17|
|ISBN 10||: 0309305322|
|Pages||: 154 pages|
The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing a program of emissions abatement or mitigation will show results over a timescale of many decades. How do we actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make a bigger difference more quickly? As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses CDR, the carbon dioxide removal of greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere and sequestration of it in perpetuity. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration introduces possible CDR approaches and then discusses them in depth. Land management practices, such as low-till agriculture, reforestation and afforestation, ocean iron fertilization, and land-and-ocean-based accelerated weathering, could amplify the rates of processes that are already occurring as part of the natural carbon cycle. Other CDR approaches, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration, direct air capture and sequestration, and traditional carbon capture and sequestration, seek to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and dispose of it by pumping it underground at high pressure. This book looks at the pros and cons of these options and estimates possible rates of removal and total amounts that might be removed via these methods. With whatever portfolio of technologies the transition is achieved, eliminating the carbon dioxide emissions from the global energy and transportation systems will pose an enormous technical, economic, and social challenge that will likely take decades of concerted effort to achieve. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration will help to better understand the potential cost and performance of CDR strategies to inform debate and decision making as we work to stabilize and reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.
|Author||: Clair Gough,Patricia Thornley,Sarah Mander,Naomi Vaughan,Amanda Lea-Langton|
|Publisher||: John Wiley & Sons|
|Release Date||: 2018-09-24|
|ISBN 10||: 1119237726|
|Pages||: 312 pages|
An essential resource for understanding the potential role for biomass energy with carbon capture and storage in addressing climate change Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) offers a comprehensive review of the characteristics of BECCS technologies in relation to its various applications. The authors — a team of expert professionals — bring together in one volume the technical, scientific, social, economic and governance issues relating to the potential deployment of BECCS as a key approach to climate change mitigation. The text contains information on the current and future opportunities and constraints for biomass energy, explores the technologies involved in BECCS systems and the performance characteristics of a variety of technical systems. In addition, the text includes an examination of the role of BECCS in climate change mitigation, carbon accounting across the supply chain and policy frameworks. The authors also offer a review of the social and ethical aspects as well as the costs and economics of BECCS. This important text: Reveals the role BECCS could play in the transition to a low-carbon economy Discusses the wide variety of technical and non-technical constraints of BECCS Presents the basics of biomass energy systems Reviews the technical and engineering issues pertinent to BECCS Explores the societal implications of BECCS systems Written for academics and research professionals, Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) brings together in one volume the issues surrounding BECCS in an accessible and authoritative manner.
|Author||: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Developing a Research Agenda for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration|
|Publisher||: National Academies Press|
|Release Date||: 2019-04-08|
|ISBN 10||: 0309484529|
|Pages||: 510 pages|
To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, "negative emissions technologies" (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change. Unlike carbon capture and storage technologies that remove carbon dioxide emissions directly from large point sources such as coal power plants, NETs remove carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere or enhance natural carbon sinks. Storing the carbon dioxide from NETs has the same impact on the atmosphere and climate as simultaneously preventing an equal amount of carbon dioxide from being emitted. Recent analyses found that deploying NETs may be less expensive and less disruptive than reducing some emissions, such as a substantial portion of agricultural and land-use emissions and some transportation emissions. In 2015, the National Academies published Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration, which described and initially assessed NETs and sequestration technologies. This report acknowledged the relative paucity of research on NETs and recommended development of a research agenda that covers all aspects of NETs from fundamental science to full-scale deployment. To address this need, Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda assesses the benefits, risks, and "sustainable scale potential" for NETs and sequestration. This report also defines the essential components of a research and development program, including its estimated costs and potential impact.
|Author||: Eilish Hanson|
|Release Date||: 2019|
|ISBN 10||: 9781687990983|
|Pages||: 160 pages|
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a negative emission strategy that can help reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. When bioenergy crops are processed into energy, CO2 can be captured during processing, transported, and stored permanently underground in geologic formations. To achieve negative CO2 emissions globally, however, BECCS must be adopted at regional scales. Regional-scale BECCS adoption will affect farm-level economics, therefore whole-farm profitability will be partly determined by changes to entire cropping patterns and farming techniques. Farm-level implications from adopting BECCS remain unclear. This study models economic implications from adopting BECCS in the Upper Missouri River Basin (UMRB) region of the United States, comparing annual whole-farm profit between baseline farms and BECCS farming systems. We define four UMRB sub-regions using Level III Environmental Protection Agency Eco-Regions and historic crop mixes, which represent regional farming systems based on county-level data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Based on historic regional crop mixes, whole-farm budgets are compiled for baseline and BECCS farming systems, including substitution of fuel for food crops, expansion of bioenergy crops on marginal lands, and inclusion of second-generation bioenergy crops. Differences in whole-farm profit show the farm-level implications from adopting BECCS in the UMRB. Results suggest that BECCS farming systems are less profitable than baseline farming systems. Differences in profit, however, help determine break-even prices or policy incentives needed for farms to voluntarily practice BECCS. Break-even prices needed for bioenergy crops can also help establish market equilibrium between bioenergy-crop producers and processors in the UMRB.
IPCC Report on sources, capture, transport, and storage of CO2, for researchers, policy-makers and engineers.
|Release Date||: 2018|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Highlights: With heat recovery, carbon negative power plants can be 38%HHV efficient. BECCS plant efficiency and carbon negativity are strongly related. Sustainably sourced biomass is key to net atmospheric CO2 removal. Co-firing can reduce SOx formation. Abstract: This study evaluates the performance of a 500MW pulverised fuel BECCS system. A performance matrix is developed to assess the opportunities for BECCS performance improvement in terms of: energy efficiency, carbon intensity, and pollutant emissions. The effect of fuel properties was analysed for variable (i) coal type (high/medium sulphur content), (ii) biomass type (wheat straw and wood chips), (iii) moisture content, and (iv) biomass co-firing proportion %. It was observed that the co-firing of biomass increased the quantity and quality of waste heat available for recovery from the exhaust gas. The opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the BECCS system include enhancing heat recovery and using high performance solvents for CO2 capture, such as biphasic materials. Implementing these approaches increased the power generation efficiency from 31%HHV (conventional MEA system) to 38%HHV (using an advanced biphasic solvent with heat recovery). Furthermore, power generation efficiency was found to influence the carbon intensity on an annual basis and annual capacity (load factor) of the BECCS system. Significant reductions to SOX emissions were achieved by increasing biomass co-firing % or using low sulphur coal.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is among the advanced energy technologies suggested to make the conventional fossil fuel sources environmentally sustainable. It is of particular importance to coal-based economies. This book deals at length with the various aspects of carbon dioxide capture, its utilization and takes a closer look at the earth processes in carbon dioxide storage. It discusses potential of Carbon Capture, Storage, and Utilization as innovative energy technology towards a sustainable energy future. Various techniques of carbon dioxide recovery from power plants by physical, chemical, and biological means as well as challenges and prospects in biomimetic carbon sequestration are described. Carbon fixation potential in coal mines and in saline aquifers is also discussed. Please note: This volume is Co-published with The Energy and Resources Institute Press, New Delhi. Taylor & Francis does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
Climate change is arguably the most important environmental issue that the world currently faces. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) offers the possibility of significant reductions in the volume of CO2 released into the atmosphere in the near to medium term. As a fairly new technology that has not been widely adopted, there remain some uncertainties related to both viability and desirability. This book discusses the key issues with regard to technical and legal feasibility, economic viability and public and stakeholder perceptions. It also provides recommendations for policy and future research.
Clean Energy for Sustainable Development: Comparisons and Contrasts of New Approaches presents information on the fundamental challenge that the energy sector faces with regard to meeting the ever growing demand for sustainable, efficient, and cleaner energy. The book compares recent developments in the field of energy technology, clean and low emission energy, and energy efficiency and environmental sustainability for industry and academia. Rasul, Azad and Sharma, along with their team of expert contributors, provide high-end research findings on relevant industry themes, including clean and sustainable energy sources and technologies, renewable energy technologies and their applications, biomass and biofuels for sustainable environment, energy system and efficiency improvement, solar thermal applications, and the environmental impacts of sustainable energy systems. This book uses global institutes and case studies to explore and analyze technological advancements alongside practical applications. This approach helps readers to develop and affirm a better understanding of the relevant concepts and solutions necessary to achieve clean energy and sustainable development in both medium and large-scale industries. Compares in-depth research on a wide range of clean technologies, from global institutes in Australia, Europe, and India Evaluates the recent developments in clean technologies against the efficiency of tried and tested applications Considers case studies on the advancements of sustainable energy into industry from around the world
"Bioenenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a form of climate change mitigation that removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere while also producing energy (either electricity or fuel). BECCS removes CO2 first through the production of bioenergy crops, which absorb CO2 out of the air during photosynthesis. The CO2 emitted when these crops are harvested and transformed into energy is then captured and injected into geologic formations underground for permanent storage. This could—depending on how and where bioenergy crops are grown and transported—result in more CO2 being removed from the atmosphere than is released, which is referred to as negative emissions."--Page .
Following on from the critically acclaimed Industrial Metabolism, this study provides a significant contribution to the literature on sustainability by identifying, on a sectoral basis, the critical issues facing the world as a whole, and the technical feasibility of addressing them. A new paradigm of eco-restructuring for sustainable development is introduced, involving shifts in technology, economic activities and lifestyles needed to harmonize human activities with natural systems.
|Author||: David A. N. Ussiri,Rattan Lal|
|Release Date||: 2017-03-28|
|ISBN 10||: 3319538454|
|Pages||: 549 pages|
This book provides an understanding of the role of human activities in accelerating change in global carbon cycling summarizes current knowledge of the contemporary carbon budget. Starting from the geological history, this volume follows a multidisciplinary approach to analyze the role of human activities in perturbing carbon cycling by quantifying changes in different reservoirs and fluxes of carbon with emphasis on the anthropogenic activities, especially after the industrial revolution. It covers the role of different mitigation options – natural ecological, engineered, and geoengineered processes as well as the emerging field of climate engineering in avoiding dangerous abrupt climate change. Although the targeted audience is the educators, students, researchers and scientific community, the simplified analysis and synthesis of current and up to date scientific literature makes the volume easier to understand and a tool policy makers can use to make an informed policy decisions.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been considered as a practical way in sequestering the huge anthropogenic CO2 amount with a reasonable cost until a more pragmatic solution appears. The CCS can work as a bridge before fulfilling the no-CO2 era of the future by applying to large-scale CO2 emitting facilities. But CCS appears to lose some passion by the lack of progress in technical developments and in commercial success stories other than EOR. This is the time to go back to basics, starting from finding a solution in small steps. The CCS technology desperately needs far newer ideas and breakthroughs that can overcome earlier attempts through improving, modifying, and switching the known principles. This book tries to give some insight into developing an urgently needed technical breakthrough through the recent advances in CCS research, in addition to the available small steps like soil carbon sequestration. This book provides the fundamental and practical information for researchers and graduate students who want to review the current technical status and to bring in new ideas to the conventional CCS technologies.
This new book presents an abundance of important information and case studies that deal with bamboo farming and its effects from and on climate change adaptation and mitigation. There is a lack of research on the role of bamboo in climate change adaptation and mitigation; this volume helps to fill that gap by providing information that will enable policymakers to consider bamboo farming and its implications in carbon trading. Bamboo represents one of the world’s highest yielding renewable natural resources and is an important source of non-timber forest products for subsistence use as well as for materials with many commercial and industrial uses. There are over 1500 documented applications of bamboo products, including materials for bridges, construction, furniture, agricultural tools, handicrafts, papers, textiles, boards, edible, and bioenergy applications. With their fast growth rate and rapid propagation, bamboo forests have a high C storage potential, especially when the harvested culms are transformed into durable products and thereby prolonging the C storage. Environmentalists love bamboo for its quick growth and for the fact that it can be harvested without harming the environment. This volume is a rich resource on the role of bamboo in ecological farming and climate change mitigation. Key features of the book include: • Explores the role of bamboo on climate change and environment and ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change • Considers overlooked bamboo biomass resources • Explains carbon capture and storage potential in bamboo • Assesses opportunities for carbon farming and carbon trading in bamboo • Looks at the role on bamboo cultivation on the livelihood of rural populations • Details the soil properties needed for bamboo-based agroforestry systems
Shows readers how we can all help solve the climate crisis by focusing on a few key, achievable actions.
Climate change is one of the main threats to modern society. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in greenhouse gas (GHGs, mainly carbon dioxide—CO2) emissions due to anthropogenic activities. The main causes are the burning of fossil fuels and land use change (deforestation). Climate change impacts are associated with risks to basic needs (health, food security, and clean water), as well as risks to development (jobs, economic growth, and the cost of living). The processes involving CO2 capture and storage are gaining attention in the scientific community as an alternative for decreasing CO2 emissions, reducing its concentration in ambient air. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) methodologies comprise three steps: CO2 capture, CO2 transportation, and CO2 storage. Despite the high research activity within this topic, several technological, economic, and environmental issues as well as safety problems remain to be solved, such as the following needs: increase of CO2 capture efficiency, reduction of process costs, and verification of the environmental sustainability of CO2 storage.
While energy is essential for development, standard fossil fuels are often in short supply in countries where it is needed most. However, alternative fuel resources abound in the form of agricultural and municipal waste or "biomass." This report reviews the state of the art of biomass combustion and gassification systems, their advantages and disadvantages. It also encourages investment in use of these technologies to enable developing countries to better exploit their biomass resources and help close the gap between their energy needs and their energy supply.
|Author||: M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer|
|Release Date||: 2010-07-13|
|ISBN 10||: 1845699580|
|Pages||: 544 pages|
Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the one advanced technology that conventional power generation cannot do without. CCS technology reduces the carbon footprint of power plants by capturing, and storing the CO2 emissions from burning fossil-fuels and biomass. This volume provides a comprehensive reference on the state of the art research, development and demonstration of carbon storage and utilisation, covering all the storage options and their environmental impacts. It critically reviews geological, terrestrial and ocean sequestration, including enhanced oil and gas recovery, as well as other advanced concepts such as industrial utilisation, mineral carbonation, biofixation and photocatalytic reduction. Foreword written by Lord Oxburgh, Climate Science Peer Comprehensively examines the different methods of storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the various concepts for utilisation Reviews geological sequestration of CO2, including coverage of reservoir sealing and monitoring and modelling techniques used to verify geological sequestration of CO2
|Author||: Jennifer Wilcox,Phil Renforth,Florian Kraxner|
|Publisher||: Frontiers Media SA|
|Release Date||: 2020-04-20|
|ISBN 10||: 2889636720|
|Pages||: 329 pages|