A circular economy is an alternative to a traditional linear economy (make, use, dispose) in which we keep resources in use for as long as possible, extract the maximum value from them whilst in use, then recover and regenerate products and materials at the end of each service life. Circular economy (CE) is important towards sustainable development, resources circulation and conservation, involving closing of material loops and cascading used resources, to prevent waste occurrence, and transforming the resulting residual streams into new (secondary) resources. Strategies and legislative framework for waste management are important steps for development of a more CE where resource efficiency becomes the key driver for both economic growth and environmental protections. A few countries achieved good results implementing CE as a replacement of the linear economy. Resource managers and planners should thoroughly identify factors to implement CE for societal benefits. This book presents how resource consumption is minimized with rational use based on 3Rs, legislative framework and government supports towards implementing CE initiatives, example of best practices, future plans and targets in different countries those are helpful for researchers, planners and implementers.
From the time of hunter-gatherers to the present day, forests have played a vital role in the development of humanity and society. This broad introductory textbook sets world forestry in a social, environmental, historical, and economic context. The development of forests, grassland and humans is described from the Devonian through to the Age of Agriculture, covering the factors determining the distribution of forests, the classification of forest types, the value and benefits of the forest and the products of the forest and their associated trade. The book also explores issues such as sustainable forest management, current patterns of deforestation and reforestation, and future challenges facing our forests. Fully updated throughout and with new contributions from international experts, this second edition includes new chapters on climate change and international forest policy, and expanded coverage of forest products and bioenergy production.
Because of the major opportunities and risks associated with it, and the complexity of the subject, bioenergy policy has in a short time become a challenging political task for regulators and planners - a task that can only be accomplished through worldwide cooperation and the creation of an international framework. This book's central message is that the sustainable potential of bioenergy, which can be tapped all over the world, should be utilized - provided that threats to sustainability are avoided. In particular, the use of bioenergy must not endanger food security or the goals of nature conservation and climate change mitigation.
|Author||: Roos, Göran|
|Publisher||: IGI Global|
|Release Date||: 2014-03-31|
|ISBN 10||: 1466658290|
|Pages||: 564 pages|
Competing in both high and low-cost operating environments can present a number of unique challenges. In light of global competition and the changing scope of various industries due to technological advancement, these challenges must be addressed in order to ensure business success. Global Perspectives on Achieving Success in High and Low Cost Operating Environments features a collection of research and case studies addressing contemporary issues surrounding operational success in various regions. Business professionals, managers, academics, and upper-level students will find this publication an essential resource for the latest tools and solutions for managing operations in diverse operating environments.
Diverse as they are in their histories and in the organization of their forest sectors, most Nordic countries have this in common: their economies and cultures are substantially based on the utilization of various forest resources. This book explores Nordic forest futures and presents research results that form part of a scientific foundation for considering how to balance the functions of forests. It is particularly concerned with global trends that may affect the future use of boreal forests. Chapters investigate inter-alia the growing world population and the expected economic growth in countries with huge populations, and assess the resulting pressure on all land-based resources. Authors examine the urgent need for solutions to the energy crisis, consider worrying climate scenarios and provide a global outlook on bioenergy futures. Readers will discover how these developments will and must influence long-term strategic decisions on the future use of Nordic forests. The challenges and possible responses for future forest governance and forestry issues emerge, as the chapters go on to consider the multiple pressures in particular on the Swedish Forestry Model, among other themes. “By bringing together a distinguished group of internationally renowned scientists representing a diverse set of disciplines covering political science, geography, rural development, forest economics, history, and geo-sciences, this book constitutes an exceptionally profound and thoughtful futures study.” – Alexander Buck, Executive Director, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO)
As the world’s population is projected to reach 10 billion or more by 2100, devastating fossil fuel shortages loom in the future unless more renewable alternatives to energy are developed. Bioenergy, in the form of cellulosic biomass, starch, sugar, and oils from crop plants, has emerged as one of the cheaper, cleaner, and environmentally sustainable alternatives to traditional forms of energy. Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants brings together the work of a panel of global experts who survey the possibilities and challenges involved in biofuel production in the twenty-first century. Section One explores the genetic improvement of bioenergy crops, ecological issues and biodiversity, feedstock logistics and enzymatic cell wall degradation to produce biofuels, and process technologies of liquid transportation fuels production. It also reviews international standards for fuel quality, unique issues of biofuel-powered engines, life-cycle environmental impacts of biofuels compared with fossil fuels, and social concerns. Section Two examines commercialized bioenergy crops, including cassava, Jatropha, forest trees, maize, oil palm, oilseed Brassicas, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, and switchgrass. Section Three profiles emerging crops such as Brachypodium, diesel trees, minor oilseeds, lower plants, Paulownia, shrub willow, sugarbeet, sunflower, and sweet potato. It also discusses unconventional biomass resources such as vegetable oils, organic waste, and municipal sludge. Highlighting the special requirements, major achievements, and unresolved concerns in bioenergy production from crop plants, the book is destined to lead to future discoveries related to the use of plants for bioenergy production. It will assist in developing innovative ways of ameliorating energy problems on the horizon.
The increasing deployment of bioenergy frequently raises issues regarding the use of land and raw materials, infrastructure and logistics. In light of these sometimes conflicting interests Advances in Bioenergy provides an objective and wide-ranging overview of the technology, economics and policy of bioenergy. Offering an authoritative multidisciplinary summary of the opportunities and challenges associated with bioenergy utilization, with international researchers give up-to-date and detailed information on key issues for biomass production and conversion to energy. Key features: *Discusses different bioenergy uses such as transportation fuels, electricity and heat production. *Assesses emerging fields such as bio-based chemicals and bio-refineries. *Debates conditions for the mobilization of sustainable bioenergy supply chains and outlines governance systems to support this mobilization. * Dedicated chapters to sustainability governance and emerging tools such as certification systems and standards supporting growth of a sustainable bioenergy industry. *Considers the political, environmental, social and cultural context related to the demand for energy resources, the impact of this demand on the world around us, and the choices and behaviours of consumers. This book will be a vital reference to engineers, researchers and students that need an accessible overview of the bioenergy area. It will also be of high value for politicians, policymakers and industry leaders that need to stay up to date with the state-of-the-art science and technology in this area.
|Author||: Madhumi Mitra|
|Publisher||: Springer Nature|
|ISBN 10||: 8132239652|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
The trade of global bioenergy commodities, such as ethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets has been growing exponentially in the past decade, and have by 2013 reached true “commodity” volumes, i.e. tens of millions of tonnes traded each year, and billions (both in US$/€) of annual turnover. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 was founded in 2004 and is now in its 4th triennium. For the past 9 years, task 40 has monitored the developments in international bioenergy trade, including the organization of about 20 workshops on trade-related topics, and the publication of over 100 studies, country reports, newsletters, etc. The amount of material produced over the years and insights gained in how biomass markets and international trade of biomass and biofuels has developed is impressive. Besides that the group has produced overviews and insights, also a large amount of practical experience has been brought together in what works and what doesn’t. Last but not least, based on all this, there are clear(er) views on how to proceed to build working sustainable international biomass markets in the future. This book compiles those lessons and insights into an easily accessible book publication.
|Author||: CADDET Centre for Renewable Energy|
|Release Date||: 2000|
|Pages||: 100 pages|
This comprehensive volume developed under the guidance of guest editors Prakash Lakshmanan and David Songstad features broad coverage of the topic of biofuels and its significance to the economy and to agriculture. These chapters were first published by In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology In Vitro Plant in 2009 and consists of 15 chapters from experts who are recognized both for their scientific accomplishments and global perspective in their assigned topics.
Greenhouse Gases Balance of Bioenergy Systems covers every stage of a bioenergy system, from establishment to energy delivery, presenting a comprehensive, multidisciplinary overview of all the relevant issues and environmental risks. It also provides an understanding of how these can be practically managed to deliver sustainable greenhouse gas reductions. Its expert chapter authors present readers to the methods used to determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy systems, the data required and the significance of the results obtained. It also provides in-depth discussion of key issues and uncertainties, such as soil, agriculture, forestry, fuel conversion and emissions formation. Finally, international case studies examine typical GHG reduction levels for different systems and highlight best practices for bioenergy GHG mitigation. For bringing together into one volume information from several different fields that was up until now scattered throughout many different sources, this book is ideal for researchers, graduate students and professionals coming into the bioenergy field, no matter their previous background. It will be particularly useful for bioenergy researchers seeking to calculate greenhouse gas balances for systems they are studying. I will also be an important resource for policy makers and energy analysts. Uses a multidisciplinary approach to synthesize the diverse information that is required to competently execute GHG balances for bioenergy systems Presents an in-depth understanding of the science underpinning key issues and uncertainty in GHG assessments of bioenergy systems Includes case studies that examine ways to maximize the GHG reductions delivered by different bioenergy systems
Developing the Global Bioeconomy: Technical, Market, and Environmental Lessons from Bioenergy brings together expertise from three IEA-Bioenergy subtasks on pyrolysis, international trade, and biorefineries to review the bioenergy sector and draw useful lessons for the full deployment of the bioeconomy. Despite the vast amount of politically driven strategies, there is little understanding on how current markets will transition towards a global bioeconomy. The question is not only how the bioeconomy can be developed, but also how it can be developed sustainably in terms of economic and environmental concerns. To answer this question, this book’s expert chapter authors seek to identify the types of biorefineries that are expected to be implemented and the types of feedstock that may be used. They also provide historical analysis of the developments of biopower and biofuel markets, integration opportunities into existing supply chains, and the conditions that would need to be created and enhanced to achieve a global biomass trade system that could support a global bioeconomy. As expectations that a future bioeconomy will rely on a series of tradable commodities, this book provides a central accounting of the state of the discussion in a multidisciplinary approach that is ideal for research and academic experts, and analysts in all areas of the bioenergy, biofuels, and bioeconomy sectors, as well as those interested in energy policy and economics. Examines the lessons learned by the bioenergy industry and how they can be applied to the full development of the bioeconomy Explores different transition strategies and how the current fossil based and future bio-based economy are intertwined Reviews the status of current biomass conversion pathways Presents an historical analysis of the developments of biopower and biofuel markets, integration opportunities into existing supply chains, and the conditions that would need to be created and enhanced to achieve a global biomass trade system
|Author||: Jan Willem van Gelder,Laura German|
|Release Date||: 2011-02-08|
|Pages||: 12 pages|
This will be a comprehensive multi-contributed reference work, with the Editors being highly regarded alternative fuels experts from India and Switzerland. There will be a strong orientation toward production of biofuels covering such topics as biodiesel from renewable sources, biofuels from biomass, vegetable based feedstocks from biofuel production, global demand for biofuels and economic aspects of biofuel production. Book covers the latest advances in all product areas relative to biofuels. Discusses coverage of public opinion related to biofuels. Chapters will be authored by world class researchers and practitioners in various aspects of biofuels. Provides good comprehensive coverage of biofuels for algae. Presents extensive discussion of future prospects in biofuels.
|Author||: Edmund Neal Hogan,Canada. Agriculture Canada,Bioenergy Development Program (Canada),Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology|
|Release Date||: 1989|
|Pages||: 791 pages|
|Release Date||: 2015|
|Pages||: 329 pages|
Abstract: The recent energy independence and climate change policies encourage development and utilization of renewable energy such as bioenergy. Biofuels in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms have been intensively researched, produced, and used over the past 15 years. This paper reviews the worldwide history, current status, and predictable future trend of bioenergy and biofuels. Bioenergy has been utilized for cooking, heating, and lighting since the dawn of humans. The energy stored in annually produced biomass by terrestrial plants is 3–4 times greater than the current global energy demand. Solid biofuels include firewood, wood chips, wood pellets, and wood charcoal. The global consumption of firewood and charcoal has been remaining relatively constant, but the use of wood chips and wood pellets for electricity (biopower) generation and residential heating doubled in the past decade and will increase steadily into the future. Liquid biofuels cover bioethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis bio-oil, and drop-in transportation fuels. Commercial production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic materials has just started, supplementing the annual supply of 22 billion gallons predominantly from food crops. Biodiesel from oil seeds reached the 5670 million gallons/yr production capacity, with further increases depending on new feedstock development. Bio-oil and drop-in biofuels are still in the development stage, facing cost-effective conversion and upgrading challenges. Gaseous biofuels extend to biogas and syngas. Production of biogas from organic wastes by anaerobic digestion has been rapidly increasing in Europe and China, with the potential to displace 25% of the current natural gas consumption. In comparison, production of syngas from gasification of woody biomass is not cost-competitive and therefore, narrowly practiced. Overall, the global development and utilization of bioenergy and biofuels will continue to increase, particularly in the biopower, lignocellulosic bioethanol, and biogas sectors. It is expected that by 2050 bioenergy will provide 30% of the world's demanded energy.