best practices in genetic and genomic research

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Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals
Author : Thomas Miedaner,Viktor Korzun
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2018-11-19
ISBN 10 : 0081022131
Pages : 380 pages

Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals covers new techniques for practical breeding, also discussing genetic and genomic approaches for improving special traits. Additional sections cover drought tolerance, biotic stress, biomass production, the impact of modern techniques on practical breeding, hybrid breeding, genetic diversity, and genomic selection. Written by an international team of top academics and edited by an expert in the field, this book will be of value to academics working in the agricultural sciences and essential reading for professionals working in plant breeding. Provides in-depth and comprehensive coverage of a rapidly developing field Presents techniques used in genetic and genomics research, with coverage of genotyping, gene cloning, genome editing and engineering and phenotyping in various cereals Includes the latest genetic and genomic approaches for improving special traits - drought tolerance, biotic stress and biomass production Covers breeding practices, with chapters on the genetic diversity of wheat, hybrid breeding and the potential of rye and barley crops

Clinical Genome Sequencing
Author : Aad Tibben,Barbara B. Biesecker
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-03-30
ISBN 10 : 0128133368
Pages : 258 pages

Clinical Genome Sequencing: Psychological Aspects thoroughly details key psychological factors to consider while implementing genome sequencing in clinical practice, taking into account the subtleties of genetic risk assessment, patient consent and best practices for sharing genomic findings. Chapter contributions from leading international researchers and practitioners cover topics ranging from the current state of genomic testing, to patient consent, patient responses to sequencing data, common uncertainties, direct-to-consumer genomics, the role of genome sequencing in precision medicine, genetic counseling and genome sequencing, genome sequencing in pediatrics, genome sequencing in prenatal testing, and ethical issues in genome sequencing. Applied clinical case studies support concept illustration, making this an invaluable, practical reference for this important and multifaceted topic area within genomic medicine. Features contributions from leading international researchers and practitioners versed in the psychosocial dimensions of genomic medicine implementation Presents clinical case studies that support concept illustration, making this an invaluable reference for students, researchers, and clinicians looking for practical guidance in this important and multifaceted topic area Details the current state of genomic testing, expectations of genome sequencing, patient consent, patient responses to sequencing data, uncertainties in genome sequencing, direct-to-consumer genome sequencing, and more

Reaping the Benefits of Genomic and Proteomic Research
Author : National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy,Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2006-03-09
ISBN 10 : 9780309164887
Pages : 188 pages

The patenting and licensing of human genetic material and proteins represents an extension of intellectual property (IP) rights to naturally occurring biological material and scientific information, much of it well upstream of drugs and other disease therapies. This report concludes that IP restrictions rarely impose significant burdens on biomedical research, but there are reasons to be apprehensive about their future impact on scientific advances in this area. The report recommends 13 actions that policy-makers, courts, universities, and health and patent officials should take to prevent the increasingly complex web of IP protections from getting in the way of potential breakthroughs in genomic and proteomic research. It endorses the National Institutes of Health guidelines for technology licensing, data sharing, and research material exchanges and says that oversight of compliance should be strengthened. It recommends enactment of a statutory exception from infringement liability for research on a patented invention and raising the bar somewhat to qualify for a patent on upstream research discoveries in biotechnology. With respect to genetic diagnostic tests to detect patient mutations associated with certain diseases, the report urges patent holders to allow others to perform the tests for purposes of verifying the results.

Returning Individual Research Results to Participants
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on the Return of Individual-Specific Research Results Generated in Research Laboratories
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2018-09-23
ISBN 10 : 0309475171
Pages : 398 pages

When is it appropriate to return individual research results to participants? The immense interest in this question has been fostered by the growing movement toward greater transparency and participant engagement in the research enterprise. Yet, the risks of returning individual research resultsâ€"such as results with unknown validityâ€"and the associated burdens on the research enterprise are competing considerations. Returning Individual Research Results to Participants reviews the current evidence on the benefits, harms, and costs of returning individual research results, while also considering the ethical, social, operational, and regulatory aspects of the practice. This report includes 12 recommendations directed to various stakeholdersâ€"investigators, sponsors, research institutions, institutional review boards (IRBs), regulators, and participantsâ€"and are designed to help (1) support decision making regarding the return of results on a study-by-study basis, (2) promote high-quality individual research results, (3) foster participant understanding of individual research results, and (4) revise and harmonize current regulations.

Rigor and Reproducibility in Genetics and Genomics
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-07-01
ISBN 10 : 0128172193
Pages : 472 pages

Rigor and Reproducibility in Genetics and Genomics: Peer-reviewed, Published, Cited provides a full methodological and statistical overview for researchers, clinicians, students, and post-doctoral fellows conducting genetic and genomic research. Here, active geneticists, clinicians, and bioinformaticists offer practical solutions for a variety of challenges associated with several modern approaches in genetics and genomics, including genotyping, gene expression analysis, epigenetic analysis, GWAS, EWAS, genomic sequencing, and gene editing. Emphasis is placed on rigor and reproducibility throughout, with each section containing laboratory case-studies and classroom activities covering step-by-step protocols, best practices, and common pitfalls. Specific genetic and genomic technologies discussed include microarray analysis, DNA-seq, RNA-seq, Chip-Seq, methyl-seq, CRISPR gene editing, and CRISPR-based genetic analysis. Training exercises, supporting data, and in-depth discussions of rigor, reproducibility, and ethics in research together deliver a solid foundation in research standards for the next generation of genetic and genomic scientists. Provides practical approaches and step-by-step protocols to strengthen genetic and genomic research conducted in the lab or classroom Through illustrative case studies and training exercises, discusses common pitfalls and solutions for genotyping, gene expression analysis, epigenetic analysis, GWAS, EWAS, genomic sequencing, and gene editing, among other genetic and genomic approaches Specifically examines best practices for microarray analysis, DNA-seq, RNA-seq, gene expression validation, Chip-Seq, methyl-seq, CRISPR gene editing, and CRISPR-based genetic analysis

Responsible Genomic Data Sharing
Author : Xiaoqian Jiang,Haixu Tang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-03-14
ISBN 10 : 0128163399
Pages : 210 pages

Responsible Genomic Data Sharing: Challenges and Approaches brings together international experts in genomics research, bioinformatics and digital security who analyze common challenges in genomic data sharing, privacy preserving technologies, and best practices for large-scale genomic data sharing. Practical case studies, including the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, the Beacon Network, and the Matchmaker Exchange, are discussed in-depth, illuminating pathways forward for new genomic data sharing efforts across research and clinical practice, industry and academia. Addresses privacy preserving technologies and how they can be applied to enable responsible genomic data sharing Employs illustrative case studies and analyzes emerging genomic data sharing efforts, common challenges and lessons learned Features chapter contributions from international experts in responsible approaches to genomic data sharing

Assessing Genetic Risks
Author : Institute of Medicine,Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1994-01-01
ISBN 10 : 0309047986
Pages : 352 pages

Raising hopes for disease treatment and prevention, but also the specter of discrimination and "designer genes," genetic testing is potentially one of the most socially explosive developments of our time. This book presents a current assessment of this rapidly evolving field, offering principles for actions and research and recommendations on key issues in genetic testing and screening. Advantages of early genetic knowledge are balanced with issues associated with such knowledge: availability of treatment, privacy and discrimination, personal decisionmaking, public health objectives, cost, and more. Among the important issues covered: Quality control in genetic testing. Appropriate roles for public agencies, private health practitioners, and laboratories. Value-neutral education and counseling for persons considering testing. Use of test results in insurance, employment, and other settings.

Genomic and Precision Medicine
Author : Geoffrey S. Ginsburg,Huntington F Willard
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-11-22
ISBN 10 : 0128006560
Pages : 398 pages

Genomic and Precision Medicine: Translation and Implementation highlights the various points along the continuum from health to disease where genomic information is impacting clinical decision-making and leading to more personalization of health care. The book pinpoints the challenges, barriers, and solutions that have been, or are being, brought forward to enable translation of genome based technologies into health care. A variety of infrastructure (data systems and EMRs), policy (regulatory, reimbursement, privacy), and research (comparative effectiveness research, learning health system approaches) strategies are also discussed. Readers will find this volume to be an invaluable resource for the translational genomics and implementation science that is required to fully realize personalized health care. Provides a comprehensive volume on the translation and implementation of biology into health care provision Presents succinct commentary and key learning points that will assist readers with their local needs for translation and implementation Includes an up-to-date overview on major ‘translational events’ in genomic and personalized medicine, along with lessons learned

Understanding Disparities in Access to Genomic Medicine
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Roundtable on Genomics and Precision Health
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2019-01-28
ISBN 10 : 0309485258
Pages : 126 pages

Genomic medicine is defined as the routine use of genomic information about an individual as part of his or her clinical care as well as the health outcomes and policy implications of that clinical use. It is one approach that has the potential to improve the quality of health care by allowing practitioners to tailor prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies to individual patients. In recent years, research breakthroughs, technological advances, and the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing have led to the wider adoption of genomic medicine. However, as with the introduction of new technologies into health care, there are concerns that genetic and genomic testing and services will not reach all segments of the population both now and in the near future, and there remains a gap in knowledge regarding potential health care disparities in genomic medicine and precision health approaches. On June 27, 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a public workshop to examine the gaps in knowledge related to access to genomic medicine and to discuss health care disparities and possible approaches to overcoming the disparate use of genomic medicine among populations. Workshop participants discussed research on access to genetics and genomics services in medically underserved areas, model programs of care for diverse patient populations, and current challenges and possible best practices for alleviating health care disparities as they relate to genomics-based approaches. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Clinical Genomics
Author : Shashikant Kulkarni,John Pfeifer
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2014-11-10
ISBN 10 : 0124051731
Pages : 488 pages

Clinical Genomics provides an overview of the various next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that are currently used in clinical diagnostic laboratories. It presents key bioinformatic challenges and the solutions that must be addressed by clinical genomicists and genomic pathologists, such as specific pipelines for identification of the full range of variants that are clinically important. This book is also focused on the challenges of diagnostic interpretation of NGS results in a clinical setting. Its final sections are devoted to the emerging regulatory issues that will govern clinical use of NGS, and reimbursement paradigms that will affect the way in which laboratory professionals get paid for the testing. Simplifies complexities of NGS technologies for rapid education of clinical genomicists and genomic pathologists towards genomic medicine paradigm Tried and tested practice-based analysis for precision diagnosis and treatment plans Specific pipelines and meta-analysis for full range of clinically important variants

Human Genome Editing
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,National Academy of Medicine,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on Human Gene Editing: Scientific, Medical, and Ethical Considerations
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2017-08-13
ISBN 10 : 0309452880
Pages : 328 pages

Genome editing is a powerful new tool for making precise alterations to an organism's genetic material. Recent scientific advances have made genome editing more efficient, precise, and flexible than ever before. These advances have spurred an explosion of interest from around the globe in the possible ways in which genome editing can improve human health. The speed at which these technologies are being developed and applied has led many policymakers and stakeholders to express concern about whether appropriate systems are in place to govern these technologies and how and when the public should be engaged in these decisions. Human Genome Editing considers important questions about the human application of genome editing including: balancing potential benefits with unintended risks, governing the use of genome editing, incorporating societal values into clinical applications and policy decisions, and respecting the inevitable differences across nations and cultures that will shape how and whether to use these new technologies. This report proposes criteria for heritable germline editing, provides conclusions on the crucial need for public education and engagement, and presents 7 general principles for the governance of human genome editing.

The Gene Wars
Author : Robert M. Cook-Deegan
Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
Release Date : 1995
ISBN 10 : 9780393313994
Pages : 416 pages

Cook-Deegan, a former director of the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee of the US Congress and an advisor to the National Center for Human Genome Research, gives a firsthand account of the struggle to launch the Human Genome Project. Using primary documents and interviews, Cook-Deegan explains scientific details, chronicles the origins of the project, covers the conflicts and partnerships between the organizations involved, and examines ethical, legal, and social issues of DNA research. Includes bandw photos. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR