basics of chimeric antigen receptor car immunotherapy

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Basics of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Immunotherapy
Author : Mumtaz Y. Balkhi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-07-31
ISBN 10 : 0128197471
Pages : 92 pages

Basics of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Immunotherapy presents the latest on how T cell adoptive immunotherapy has progressed in its ultimate goal of curing metastatic malignant cancers. Recent clinical data obtained with checkpoint receptor blockade inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy has been especially promising, thus generating renewed hope that we may be on the verge of finally curing cancer. Over the years, huge progress has been made in controlling several stage IV metastasized cancers through the clinical application of checkpoint receptor inhibitory drugs and CAR-Therapy that has seen unprecedented interest in the immunotherapy field. Presents the first book to provide a basic understanding of chimeric antigen receptor (CARs) design, production and clinical application protocols Provides unique authority as the editor has worked directly with CARs Discusses the challenges encountered in actual clinical trials and how these challenges can be overcome Includes a full chapter on various challenges researchers should expect to encounter in the CAR-therapy field

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapies for Cancer E-Book
Author : Daniel W. Lee,Nirali N. Shah
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2019-11-30
ISBN 10 : 0323755976
Pages : 244 pages

From patient referral to post-therapy management, Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapies for Cancer: A Practical Guide presents a comprehensive view of CAR modified T-cells in a concise and practical format. Providing authoritative guidance on the implementation and management of CAR T-cell therapy from Drs. Daniel W. Lee and Nirali N. Shah, this clinical resource keeps you up to date on the latest developments in this rapidly evolving area. Covers all clinical aspects, including patient referral, toxicities management, comorbidities, bridging therapy, post-CAR monitoring, and multidisciplinary approaches to supportive care. Includes key topics on associated toxicities such as predictive biomarkers, infections, and multidisciplinary approaches to supportive care. Presents current knowledge on FDA approved CAR T-cell products as well as developments on the horizon. Editors and authors represent leading investigators in academia and worldwide pioneers of CAR therapy.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells
Author : Kamilla Swiech,Kelen Cristina Ribeiro Malmegrim,Virgínia Picanço-Castro
Publisher : Humana
Release Date : 2020-11-24
ISBN 10 : 9781071601488
Pages : 274 pages

This volume provides comprehensive methods from expert scientists working in the Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (CAR-T Cell) field. Chapters guide readers through the state-of-art of CAR-T cell technology, CAR design and vector production, CAR-T cell generation and manufacturing, CAR-T cell characterization, and quality control. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells: Development and Production aims to be useful in the production of CAR-T cells, especially for therapeutic purposes.

Author : Krassimir Metodiev
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-04-26
ISBN 10 : 9535131052
Pages : 414 pages

This is another attempt of InTechOpen to continue the dissemination of international knowledge and experience in the field of immunology. The present book includes a number of modern concepts of specialists and experts in the field of immunotherapy, covering the major topics and analyzing the history, current stage, and future ideas of application of modern immunomodulation. It is always a benefit, but also a compliment, to gather a team of internationally distinguished authors and to motivate them to reveal their expertise for the benefit of medical science and health practice. On behalf of all readers, immunologists, immunogeneticists, biologists, oncologists, microbiologists, virologists, hematologists, chemotherapists, health-care experts, as well as students and medical specialists, also on my personal behalf, I would like to extend my gratitude and highest appreciation to InTechOpen for giving me the unique chance to be the editor of this exclusive book.

Developments in T Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapies
Author : Paolo A. Ascierto,David F. Stroncek,Ena Wang
Publisher : Humana Press
Release Date : 2015-11-26
ISBN 10 : 3319211676
Pages : 305 pages

This volume illustrates the salient aspects of cancer biology relevant to the successful implementation of immunotherapy. Topics include enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses by anti-cancer vaccines, modulation of the function of T cells within the tumor microenvironment, and the effects of genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and environmental determinants on T cell function. Other topics covered include the ex vivo expansion of T or other immune cells and their genetic modification or reprogramming to increase their ability to survive and expand when adoptively transferred back to the patients. Specific attention is devoted to the genetic manipulation of T cells through the introduction of re-directed T cell receptors, chimeric antibody receptors, and other genetic manipulation aimed at improving their effectiveness as anti-cancer agents. Furthermore, the revolutionary role of checkpoint inhibitors and their potential in combination with other immunotherapeutic approaches or with standard chemo and radiation therapy are extensively discussed.

Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases
Author : Manzoor Ahmad Mir
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-05-25
ISBN 10 : 0128026758
Pages : 322 pages

Developing Costimulatory Molecules for Immunotherapy of Diseases highlights the novel concept of reverse costimulation and how it can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy using either humanized antibodies against CD80, CD86, and other costimulatory molecules or CD28 fusinogenic proteins in the treatment of diseases, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus nephritis, severe psoriasis, vulgaris tuberculosis, thopoid, transplantation therapeutic, cancer, and inflammation. The text aims to provide the latest information on the complex roles and interactions within the CD28 and B7 costimulatory families, with the hope that targeting these families will yield new therapies for the treatment of inflammation, autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, and other infectious diseases. Highlights the novel concept of reverse costimulation and how it can be effectively exploited to develop immunotherapy Provides the latest information on the complex roles and interactions within the CD28 and B7 costimulatory families Targets new therapies for the treatment of inflammation, autoimmunity, transplantation, cancer, and other infectious diseases

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell Immunotherapy for MUC1-positive Breast Cancer
Author : Artemis Gavriil
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2018
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages

Part I- Understanding Cancer Immunotherapy: A brief Review. Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment that boosts the body's natural defenses to fight cancer. It uses substances made by the body or in a laboratory to improve or restore immune system function. Immunotherapy may work by: Stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells Stopping cancer from spreading to other parts of the body Helping the immune system work better at destroying cancer cells There are several types of immunotherapy, including: Monoclonal antibodies and tumor-agnostic therapies Non-specific immunotherapies Oncolytic virus therapy T-cell therapy Cancer vaccines Part II- “What is Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T- Cell Therapy?” An Emerging Cancer Treatment Modality. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an emerging cancer treatment modality in which the patients’ own immune cells are collected, genetically engineered to recognize a tumor-related target, expanded in vitro, and then reinfused to produce responses and prevent progression in a variety of malignancies (ie, adoptive cell transfer) Several types of adoptive cell transfer(ACT) are under investigation, but CAR T-cell therapy is the first to enter clinical practice. Like other technologies, CAR-T cell therapy has undergone a long development process in the past. Chimeric antigen receptor- (CAR-) T cell therapy is one of the most recent innovative immunotherapies and is rapidly evolving. At present, CAR-T cell therapy is developing rapidly, and many clinical trials have been established on a global scale, which has great commercial potential. I have endeavored to compile this E- Booklet into Two Parts i.e. Part I & Part II for better understanding of Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, an emerging cancer treatment modality. In Part I, an effort has been made to describe Cancer Immunotherapy briefly whereas in Part II know about of CAR T-Cell Therapy-the first to enter clinical practice- has been embodied. Further it is attempted to describe toxicity of CAR-T cell therapy briefly and future development and opportunities for immunotherapy. …Dr. H. K. Saboowala. M.B.(Bom) .M.R.S.H.(London)

Cell and Gene Therapies
Author : Miguel-Angel Perales,Syed A. Abutalib,Catherine Bollard
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-11-27
ISBN 10 : 3319543687
Pages : 288 pages

In this book, experts in the field express their well-reasoned opinions on a range of complex, clinically relevant issues across the full spectrum of cell and gene therapies with the aim of providing trainee and practicing hematologists, including hematopoietic transplant physicians, with information that is relevant to clinical practice and ongoing research. Each chapter focuses on a particular topic, and the concise text is supported by numerous working tables, algorithms, and figures. Whenever appropriate, guidance is provided regarding the availability of potentially high-impact clinical trials. The rapid evolution of cell and gene therapies is giving rise to numerous controversies that need to be carefully addressed. In meeting this challenge, this book will appeal to all residents, fellows, and faculty members responsible for the care of hematopoietic cell transplant patients. It will also offer a robust, engaging tool to aid vital activities in the daily work of every hematology and oncology trainee.

Second Generation Cell and Gene-Based Therapies
Author : Alain Vertes,Nathan J. Dowden,Devyn Smith,Nasib Qureshi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-02-07
ISBN 10 : 0128120339
Pages : 846 pages

Second Generation Cell and Gene-Based Therapies: Biological Advances, Clinical Outcomes, and Strategies for Capitalisation serves as the only volume to the market to bridge basic science, clinical therapy, technology development, and business in the field of cellular therapy/cytotherapy. After more than two decades of painstaking fundamental research, the concept of therapeutic cells (stem cells, genes, etc.), beyond the concept of vaccines, is reaching clinical trial, with mounting confidence in the safety and efficacy of these products. Nonetheless, numerous incremental technical advances remain to be achieved. Thus, this volume highlights the possible R&D paths, which will ultimately facilitate clinical delivery of cutting edge curative products. The next waves of innovation are reviewed in depth for hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, tissue engineering, CAR-T cells, and cells of the immune system, as well as for enabling technologies such as gene and genome editing. Additionally, deep dives in product fundamentals, history of science, pathobiology of diseases, scientific and technological bases, and financing and technology adoption constraints are taken to unravel what will shape the cytotherapy industry to the horizon 2025 and beyond. The outcome is not simply a scientific book, but a global perspective on the nascent field combining science, business, and strategic fundamentals. Helps readers learn about the most current trends in cell-based therapy, their overall effectiveness from a clinical prospective, and how the industry is moving therapies forward for capitalization "Perspectives" section at the end of each chapter summarizes key learnings, hypotheses, and objectives highlighted and combines scientific and business insights Edited and authored by scientists representing both basic and clinical research and industry, presenting a complete story of the current state and future promise of cellular therapies

Cellular Therapies in Cancer
Author : Katy Rezvani,Rohtesh S. Mehta
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-01-16
ISBN 10 : 2889633780
Pages : 329 pages

Translational Research in Breast Cancer
Author : Erwei Song,Hai Hu
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-12-28
ISBN 10 : 9811060207
Pages : 418 pages

This book offers a comprehensive introduction to translational efforts in breast cancer, addressing the latest approaches to precision medicine based on the current state of understanding of breast cancer. With the latest developments in breast cancer research, our understanding of the genomic changes and the oncogenic signaling cascade of breast cancer has made considerable strides. Further, the immuno-environment has been demonstrated as the barrier to clinical cancer. In addition, major advances in cancer biology, immunology, genomics and metabolism have broken new ground for designing therapeutic approaches and selecting appropriate treatments on the basis of more precise information on the individual patient. As a result of these two trends, a clearer picture of the molecular landscape of breast cancers has facilitated the development of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for clinical oncology. All these aspects are addressed in this volume, which offers a comprehensive resource for researchers, graduate students and oncologists in cancer research.

The Basics of Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Haidong Dong,Svetomir N. Markovic
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-01-05
ISBN 10 : 3319706225
Pages : 160 pages

This book provides patients and their physicians (especially “non-oncologist” health care providers) with a clear and concise introduction to cancer immunotherapy, which, unlike traditional forms of cancer therapy, acts by boosting the patient’s own immune system to fight cancer. The unique features of cancer immunotherapy make its management, monitoring and side-effects different from those of traditional cancer therapy. Especially novel are the side effects of cancer immunotherapy, necessitating greater awareness for both patients and physicians in order to minimize complications of therapy. The patient-friendly, concise, easy-to-understand, and up-to-date knowledge presented in this book will inform patients about the benefits and risks of cancer immunotherapy, and help them and their care providers to understand how immunotherapy would control their unique disease. Researchers and academic professionals in the field of cancer immunotherapy will also find clear and useful information to help them communicate with patients or address unresolved problems. Some key features of the book are: Expertise. All editors and authors are scientists and oncologists specializing in cancer immunotherapy, and are involved in scientific discovery from the early stage of immune-checkpoint inhibitors to today’s daily patient care. Their insights, expertise and experience guarantee the high quality and authority in the science, medicine and practice of cancer immunotherapy. Patient-friendly. This book is written for cancer patients in order to meet their needs when considering immunotherapy. As an educational tool, this book will help the reader balance the risks and benefits based on both science and clinical facts, and therefore to make the best choice in receiving or withdrawing from immunotherapy. Disease Specificity. Cancer is a complicated disease involving multiple stages and pathology. Its response to immunotherapy is individualized and varies depending on cancer types. The authors’ expertise in treating different types of cancers, including melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder, and lymphoma, provides disease-specific insights in applying immunotherapy to each disease.

Pocket Oncology
Author : Alexander Drilon,Michael Postow,Neil Vasan,Maria I. Carlo
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release Date : 2018-02-07
ISBN 10 : 1496391055
Pages : 374 pages

Written and edited by leading cancer experts at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Pocket Oncology, Second Edition, is a practical, high-yield reference for trainees and practitioners of medical oncology and hematology. This easy-to-use, loose-leaf resource contains up-to-date information essential to caring for patients with cancer, from cancer biology, prevention, screening, treatment and supportive care to new advances in immuno-oncology and precision medicine.

Author : Laurence Zitvogel,Guido Kroemer
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-12-13
ISBN 10 : 3319624318
Pages : 724 pages

In this book, leading experts in cancer immunotherapy join forces to provide a comprehensive guide that sets out the main principles of oncoimmunology and examines the latest advances and their implications for clinical practice, focusing in particular on drugs with FDA/EMA approvals and breakthrough status. The aim is to deliver a landmark educational tool that will serve as the definitive reference for MD and PhD students while also meeting the needs of established researchers and healthcare professionals. Immunotherapy-based approaches are now inducing long-lasting clinical responses across multiple histological types of neoplasia, in previously difficult-to-treat metastatic cancers. The future challenges for oncologists are to understand and exploit the cellular and molecular components of complex immune networks, to optimize combinatorial regimens, to avoid immune-related side effects, and to plan immunomonitoring studies for biomarker discovery. The editors hope that this book will guide future and established health professionals toward the effective application of cancer immunology and immunotherapy and contribute significantly to further progress in the field.

A Cure Within
Author : Neil Canavan
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2018
ISBN 10 : 9781621822172
Pages : 277 pages

Cancer. There are few words in the English language having such a visceral, personal impact. Cancer patient. Cancer survivor. Pretty much anyone over the age of 30 knows one. A family member. A friend. Someone lost too soon. Someone forever changed. But we don't really like to talk about it, because there's really not much we can do. We fight cancer, sure, but we rarely win. Defeating cancer is one of medical science's greatest challenges. So when a novel approach to treatment seems promising, there is an intense interest in its progress and those who are making it. This book is about both - the progress and the pioneers - and its focus is the revolutionary science of something called cancer immunotherapy. This medical marvel, cancer immunotherapy - also called immuno-oncology - is still in its infancy. Yet, mobilizing the immune system to recognize and attack cancer has long been imagined, and occasionally attempted, for more than 100 years: It is only just recently that significant - in fact, unprecedented - progress has been made. With the use of newly approved immunotherapy treatments, there are now reports of hundreds, if not thousands of cancer patients with advanced disease living years beyond all prior expectation. Some of these once-terminally ill patients are now called "cured." This has never happened before. As Dr. Jill O'Donnell-Tormey comments in the Foreword, "It has taken decades of basic research and billions of dollars of investment to build the foundation upon which today's lifesaving treatments are based. This book offers a uniquely entertaining yet inspiring glimpse into the lives and minds of the academic and industry pioneers who forged this new field. It is a story of how an obscure and oft-derided field of cancer research - and the tenacious few scientists who refused to abandon it - came from behind to become the new 'darling of oncology.'" The book's author, Neil Canavan, is an experienced commentator on new developments in medical science. His portraits of 25 of the pioneers in immunotherapy are the culmination of two years of travel to laboratories, offices, and conferences around the world and countless hours of conversation with individuals immersed in a vitally important, promising assault on a dread disease that kills more than eight million people each year worldwide. -- from dust jacket.

Cancer Immunosurveillance
Author : Alejandro López-Soto,Alicia R. Folgueras
Publisher : Humana Press
Release Date : 2018-11-22
ISBN 10 : 9781493988846
Pages : 363 pages

This volume explores the latest techniques used to study tumor immunology. The chapters in this book detail methodologies for functional analysis and expansion of T lymphocytes for cancer research. The chapters also cover topics such as how single-cell RNA-sequencing can be exploited to dissect immune cell heterogeneity and precursors; isolating and expanding natural killer (NK) cells; evaluating NK cell-mediated anti-tumor killing activity in vitro; immunosurveillance orchestrated by specific immune subsets; use of HLA peptidomics for cancer-exome based identification of tumor neo-antigens; gold standard assessment of immunogenic cell death in oncological mouse models and methods to look at the therapeutic relevance of immune modulation in cancer. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, Cancer Immunosurveillance: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource to aid researchers in better understanding and experimenting in this exciting and developing field.

CAR-T Cell Therapies for Non-Hematopoietic Malignancies: Taking Off The Training Wheels
Author : Avery Dexter Posey, Jr.,John - Maher,Marcela V. Maus
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-04-24
ISBN 10 : 2889636879
Pages : 329 pages

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies for leukemia (e.g. tisagenlecleucel) and lymphoma (e.g. axicabtagene ciloleucel) have recently received regulatory approval in the United States. Phase I/II trials have demonstrated complete remission of refractory or relapsed tumors in 50% - 94% patients. However, the clinical successes of engineered T cells for the treatment of solid malignancies have thus far been few and far between. Furthermore, several instances of severe and lethal toxicities have arisen due to on-target, off-tumor recognition of antigen by T cell products. Recent advances in phase I trials for solid tumors, as well as in pre-clinical models, have revealed several variables that will be important to consider for the successful use of CAR-T cells in treating solid tumors. These variables include (i) regional versus systemic delivery; (ii) scFv versus ligand interactions; (iii) antigen loss versus escape; (iv) epitope spreading and (v) checkpoint expression on immune cells or tumor cells. Also, there remains outstanding mechanistic questions related to why differences exist in the persistence and tonic signaling of second-generation CD28 versus 4-1BB co-stimulated CAR-T cells. In addition, we are now learning the roles of lympho-depleting regimens (and associated toxicities) in modifying the persistence of engineered T cell therapies. A more comprehensive view of CAR-T cell strategies and important advances, both of pre-clinical and clinical evaluations, in solid tumors is necessary to drive these therapies forward.

Immune Regulation
Author : Marc Feldmann,N. A. Mitchison
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 1461249961
Pages : 392 pages

Leukocyte culture conferences have a long pedigree. This volume records some of the scientific highlights of the 16th such annual con ference, and is a witness to the continuing evolution and popularity of leukocyte culture and of immunology. There is strong evidence of the widening horizons of immunology, both technically, with the obviously major impact of molecular biology into our understanding of cellular processes, and also conceptually. Traditionally, the 'proceedings' of these conferences have been published. But have the books produced really recorded the major part of the conference, the informal, friendly, but intense and some times heated exchanges that take place between workers in tackling very similar problems and systems and which are at the heart of every successful conference? Unfortunately this essence cannot be incorpo rated by soliciting manuscripts. For this reason, we have changed the format of publication, retaining published versions of the symposium papers, but requesting the workshop chairmen to produce a summary of the major new observations and areas of controversy highlighted in their sessions, as a vehicle for defining current areas of interest and debate. Not an easy task, as the workshop topics were culled from the abstracts submitted by the participants, rather than being on predefined topics. The unseasonal warmth in Cambridge was reflected in the atmos phere of the conference, the organization of which benefited from the administrative skills of Jean Bacon, Philippa Wells, Mr. Peter Irving, and Mrs.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor T‐Cell Therapy for the Community Oncologist
Author : N.A
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2016
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 329 pages

Abstract : The field of cancer immunotherapy has rapidly progressed in the past decade as several therapeutic modalities have entered into the clinic. One such immunotherapy that has shown promise in the treatment of cancer is the use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)‐modified T lymphocytes. CARs are engineered receptors constructed from antigen recognition regions of antibodies fused to T‐cell signaling and costimulatory domains that can be used to reprogram a patient's T cells to specifically target tumor cells. CAR T‐cell therapy has demonstrated sustained complete responses for some patients with advanced leukemia, and a number of CAR therapies are being evaluated in clinical studies. CAR T‐cell therapy‐associated toxicities, including cytokine release syndrome, macrophage activation syndrome, and tumor lysis syndrome, have been observed and effectively managed in the clinic. In patients with significant clinical responses, sustained B‐cell aplasia has also been observed and is a marker of CAR T‐cell persistence that might provide long‐term disease control. Education on CAR T‐cell therapy efficacy and safety management is critical for clinicians and patients who are considering this novel type of treatment. In the present report, the current landscape of CAR T‐cell therapy, the effective management of patients undergoing treatment, and which patients are the most suitable candidates for current trials are discussed. Implications for Practice: The present report describes the current status of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T lymphocytes as an immunotherapy for patients with relapsed or refractory B‐cell malignancies. CAR T cells targeting CD19, a protein expressed on many B‐cell malignancies, typically induce high complete response rates in patients with B‐cell leukemia or lymphoma who have very limited therapeutic options. Recent clinical trial results of CD19 CAR T‐cell therapies and the management of CAR T‐cell‐associated adverse events are discussed. The present report will therefore inform physicians regarding the efficacy and safety of CAR T cells as a therapy for B‐cell malignancies. Abstract : An immunotherapy that has shown promise in cancer treatment is chimeric antigen receptor‐modified (CAR‐modified) T lymphocytes. CARs are engineered receptors constructed from antigen recognition regions of antibodies fused to T‐cell signaling and costimulatory domains that reprogram a patient's T cells to specifically target tumor cells. The current landscape of CAR T‐cell therapy, effective management of patients undergoing treatment, and the most suitable candidates for current trials are discussed.