aspects of explosives detection

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Aspects of Explosives Detection
Author : Maurice Marshall,Jimmie C. Oxley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-07-28
ISBN 10 : 9780080923147
Pages : 302 pages
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Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection

Aspects of Explosives Detection
Author : Maurice Marshall,Jimmie C. Oxley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-07-28
ISBN 10 : 9780080923147
Pages : 302 pages
GET BOOK!

Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection

Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives
Author : Jehuda Yinon
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-10-13
ISBN 10 : 9780080545202
Pages : 454 pages
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The detection of hidden explosives has become an issue of utmost importance in recent years. While terrorism is not new to the international community, recent terrorist attacks have raised the issue of detection of explosives and have generated a great demand for rapid, sensitive and reliable methods for detecting hidden explosives. Counterterrorist Detection Techniques of Explosives covers recent advances in this area of research including vapor and trace detection techniques (chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, electrochemical methods and micromechanical sensors, such as microcantilevers) and bulk detection techniques (neutron techniques, nuclear quadrupole resonance, x-ray diffraction imaging, millimeter-wave imaging, terahertz imaging and laser techniques). This book will be of interest to any scientists involved in the design and application of security screening technologies including new sensors and detecting devices which will prevent the smuggling of bombs and explosives. * Covers latest advances in vapor and trace detection techniques and bulk detection techniques * Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development * Techniques that are described in detail, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives

Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives
Author : Paul M. Pellegrino,Ellen L. Holthoff,Mikella E. Farrell
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-09-03
ISBN 10 : 1351831178
Pages : 409 pages
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Laser-Based Optical Detection of Explosives offers a comprehensive review of past, present, and emerging laser-based methods for the detection of a variety of explosives. This book: Considers laser propagation safety and explains standard test material preparation for standoff optical-based detection system evaluation Explores explosives detection using deep ultraviolet native fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, reflectometry, and hyperspectral imaging Examines photodissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence, photothermal methods, cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry, and short-pulse laser-based techniques Describes the detection and recognition of explosives using terahertz-frequency spectroscopic techniques Each chapter is authored by a leading expert on the respective technology, and is structured to supply historical perspective, address current advantages and challenges, and discuss novel research and applications. Readers are left with an in-depth understanding and appreciation of each technology’s capabilities and potential for standoff hazard detection.

Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Review of Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2004-05-14
ISBN 10 : 9780309166034
Pages : 148 pages
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Existing and Potential Standoff Explosives Detection Techniques examines the scientific techniques currently used as the basis for explosives detection and determines whether other techniques might provide promising research avenues with possible pathways to new detection protocols. This report describe the characteristics of explosives, bombs, and their components that are or might be used to provide a signature for exploitation in detection technology; considers scientific techniques for exploiting these characteristics to detect explosives and explosive devices; discusses the potential for integrating such techniques into detection systems that would have sufficient sensitivity without an unacceptable false-positive rate; and proposes areas for research that might be expected to yield significant advances in practical explosives and bomb detection technology in the near, mid, and long term.

Explosives Detection
Author : Lorenzo Capineri,Eyüp Kuntay Turmuş
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-01-29
ISBN 10 : 940241729X
Pages : 331 pages
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This volume presents selected contributions from the “Advanced Research Workshop on Explosives Detection” hosted by the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Florence, Italy in 2018. The main goal of the workshop was to find out how Science for Peace and Security projects in the field of Explosives Detection contribute to the development and/or refinement of scientific and technical knowledge and competencies. The findings of the workshop, presented in the last section of the book, determine future actions and direction of the SPS Programme in the field of explosives detection and management.The NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme, promotes dialogue and practical cooperation between NATO member states and partner nations based on scientific research, technological innovation and knowledge exchange. Several initiatives were launched in the field of explosive detection and clearance, as part of NATO’s enhanced role in the international fight against terrorism. Experts and scientists from NATO members and partner countries have been brought together in multi-year projects, within the framework of the SPS Programme, to cooperate in the scientific research in explosive detection field, developing new technologies and methods to be implemented in order to detect explosive substances in different contexts.

Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Panel on Assessment of Technologies Deployed to Improve Aviation Security
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1999-11-23
ISBN 10 : 0309172438
Pages : 86 pages
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This report assesses the operational performance of explosives-detection equipment and hardened unit-loading devices (HULDs) in airports and compares their operational performance to their laboratory performance, with a focus on improving aviation security.

Electronic Noses
Author : Julian W. Gardner,Philip Nigel Bartlett
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date : 1999
ISBN 10 :
Pages : 245 pages
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Since the mid 1980s there has been increasing interest in the development of so-called 'electronic noses', electronic instruments capable of detecting and recognizing complex odours. In this book, the authors discuss the basic principles of an electronic nose, give practical examples of applications, review the field, and detail the major new developments. Electronic noses: principles and applications will be essential reading for anyone working, researching, or simply interested in, the field of electronic noses or machine olfaction. The interdisciplinary nature of the subject is reflected by the different disciplines of the authorsengineering and chemistry - and the book is accessible to engineers, physicists, chemists and biologists.

The Analysis of Explosives
Author : Jehuda Yinon,Shmuel Zitrin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
ISBN 10 : 1483140059
Pages : 322 pages
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The Analysis of Explosives surveys the principles of the various analytical methods, describes how these methods are used for the analysis of explosives, and reviews the major analytical work carried out in this field. Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with the classification of explosives. Subsequent chapters discuss the different methods for the analysis of explosives. The detection and identification of explosive residues and hidden explosives are also explained. This monograph will be useful as a reference book for chemists in analytical and forensic laboratories, as well as a textbook for graduate students in analytical chemistry and forensic sciences.

Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-05-31
ISBN 10 : 9781402048869
Pages : 230 pages
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This book collects lectures of an international NATO-Russian Advanced Research Workshop on Detection and Disposal of Improvised Explosives (IE) used by terrorists. The disposal of IE is especially dangerous, because they are often much more unstable and mechanically more sensitive than commercial or military explosives. This text covers detection of explosives by different analytical methods and the different shape and compositions of the explosive charge, and offers up-to-date advice on handling and disposal.

Detection of Explosives and Landmines
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
ISBN 10 : 9401003971
Pages : 249 pages
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This ARW is the third NATO-sponsored workshop on Explosives Detection and Humanitarian Demining. The previous events were • Detection and Destruction of Anti-Personnel Landmines Moscow, 1997 • Explosives Detection and Decontamination of the Environment Prague, 1997. Over the last decade applied research in Humanitarian Demining has made progress to some extend, but according to the tremendous tasks of Demining and the lack of scientific methods for practical detection of explosive devices, research activities are still of the same importance than ever before. Concerning countermeasures against terrorism the detection of explosives is one of the keyfactors, but the practical applications are not sufficient solved. An international exchange of research results are therefore urgent, to find out the most promising measures for application. The coincidence of this ARW and the terrible disaster of New York and Washington may demonstrate the importance of this task. In consequence the explosive device detection technologies can make a major contribution to collective, family and individual security. In developed countries, these technologies provide a strong deterrent and preventative measure against terrorist threats. In less developed regions, they can improve individual, institutional and state security, lessening the insecurity that motivates many terrorists acts. The elimination of landmine threats is just one of many ways of achieving this. However our attempts to meet the extremely difficult technical challenges posed by landmine and UXO contamination are inevitably leading us to new technological approaches.

Detection of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism
Author : Hiltmar Schubert,Andrey Kuznetsov
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2008-05-29
ISBN 10 : 9781402084652
Pages : 233 pages
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The organization of an Advanced Research Workshop with the title “Detection and Disposal of Liquid Explosives and Flammable Agents in Connection with Terrorism” was motivated by international findings about activities in this field of application. This ARW followed a meeting about the “Detection of Disposal Improvised Explosives” (St. Petersburg, 2005). Both items show the logistic problems as one of the lessons, terrorists have to overcome. These problems are connected with the illegal supply and transport of explosives and fuels and as counter-measure the detection of these materials. The invention of liquid explosives goes back to the middle of the 19th century and was used for special purposes in the commercial field of application. Because of the high sensitivity of liquid explosives against mechanical shock, caused by adiabatic compression of air-bobbles producing “hot spots” as origin of initiation the commercial application was not very successful. Because of this high risk, liquid explosives are not used in military or commercial application with some exceptions. In the commercial field explosives as slurries or emulsions consisting of suitable salts (Ammoniumnitrate etc.) and water are used to a large extend because of their high insensitivity. In many cases these slurries or emulsions were unfit for terrorist actions, because of their low sensitivity, large critical diameter and using in confinement. In the military field liquid explosives are used in World War I and II as bomb-fillings.