antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment

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Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in the Environment
Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-11-22
ISBN 10 : 0128188839
Pages : 432 pages
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Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes (AMR) in the Environment summarizes and updates information on antibiotic producing organisms and their resistance and entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment. As antibiotic use continues to rise in healthcare, their fate, bioavailability and biomonitoring, and impacts on environment and public health are becoming increasingly important. The book addresses the impact of antibiotics and AMR to environment and public health and risk assessment. Moreover, it focused on the metagenomics and molecular techniques for the detection of antibiotics and antimicrobial genes. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as treatment technologies for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARGs-impacted environment, and bioremediation approaches. Summarizes and updates information on antibiotics and AMR/ARGs production and its fate and transport in the environment Includes phytoremediation and bioremediation technologies for environmental management Provides analysis of risk assessment of antibiotic resistance genes to help understand the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes
Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-04-07
ISBN 10 : 3030404226
Pages : 456 pages
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This volume summarizes and updates information about antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)/antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) production, including their entry routes in soil, air, water and sediment, their use in hospital and associated waste, global and temporal trends in use and spread of antibiotics, AMR and ARG. Antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance genes due to manure and agricultural waste applications, bioavailability, biomonitoring, and their Epidemiological, ecological and public health effects. The book addresses the antibiotic and AMR/ARG risk assessment and treatment technologies, for managing antibiotics and AMR/ARG impacted environments The book's expert contributions span 20 chapters, and offer a comprehensive framework for better understanding and analyzing the environmental and social impacts of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs. Readers will have access to recent and updated models regarding the interpretation of antibiotics and AMR/ARGs in environment and biomonitoring studies, and will learn about the management options require to appropriately mitigate environmental contaminants and pollution. The book will be of interest to students, teachers, researchers, policy makers and environmental organizations.

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment
Author : Patricia L. Keen,Mark H. M. M. Montforts
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-01-24
ISBN 10 : 0470905425
Pages : 602 pages
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Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment
Author : Carlos F. Amabile-Cuevas
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2015-12-30
ISBN 10 : 1315679418
Pages : 136 pages
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The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment (i.e., outside of clinical settings, such as antibiotic-treated patients or antibiotic-impregnated locations, such as hospitals) is a cause of growing worldwide concern, as it reveals the extensive impact of antibiotic abuse and other huma

Antibiotic Resistance in Aquatic Systems
Author : Satoru Suzuki,Amy Pruden,Marko Virta,Tong Zhang
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2017-04-10
ISBN 10 : 2889451313
Pages : 329 pages
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Rivers, lakes and the ocean receive antibiotic resistance genes from human environments. The aquatic environments are a huge reservoir and exchange stage of antibiotic resistance genes.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters
Author : Karina Yew-Hoong Gin,Charmaine Ng
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2019-04-30
ISBN 10 : 3038976083
Pages : 188 pages
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters. Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes
Author : Patricia L. Keen,Rapha L. Fug Re,Raphaël Fugère
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-12-18
ISBN 10 : 1119192439
Pages : 392 pages
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Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes. Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes: Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.

Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance Genes in Soils
Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi,Vladimir Strezov,Ajit Varma
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-11-03
ISBN 10 : 3319662600
Pages : 419 pages
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This book summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment. It covers a wide range of topics to help readers understand antibiotics and ARGs in soils, the risks they pose for the environment, and options for effective control. In addition, it presents a range of essential tools and methodologies that can be used to address antibiotics and ARGs in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Gathering contributions by international experts, the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.The topics discussed include antibiotics-producing microorganisms; the routes of entry and fate of antibiotics and resistance genes; biomonitoring approaches; dissemination of ARGs in soils; risk assessment; the impact of antibiotics and ARGs on the soil microbial community and other biota; bioremediation and biodegradation approaches; and soil management strategies for antibiotics and ARG-contaminated soils.As such, the book will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences, microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. Readers and Journals: 1. This new volume on antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil environment will be of interest to students, researchers and scholars in environmental science and engineering, toxicology, the medical and pharmaceutical sciences, environmental biotechnology, soil sciences,microbial ecology and plant biotechnology. 2. The book will provide government authorities all over the world with effective strategies for the management of antibiotics and antibiotics resistance genes (ARG)- contaminated soil. 3. Gathering contributions by international experts,the book addresses both theoretical aspects and practical applications.

Perspectives in Environmental Toxicology
Author : Kavindra Kumar Kesari
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-03-07
ISBN 10 : 3319462482
Pages : 214 pages
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This book is a valuable contribution to the debate about the harmful effects of environmental toxicants on human health, which is a growing concern in the 21st century. Complementary chapters decipher the phenomena and highlight the latest developments in environmental toxicology, providing readers with a comprehensive overview of environmental toxicology and human health. Since the toxicants in question are not only chemical or biological in nature, but also include man-made electromagnetic fields, the book explores in detail multidisciplinary approaches to environmental toxicology, with a focus on the following five aspects: 1. The effects of man-made electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on human health proposed mechanisms and biological effects and measures). 2. An overview of nanotoxicity, nanomedicine and cancer research. 3. A bio-computational approach to the molecular interaction of environmental carcinogens with DNA. 4. The toxicology of environmental pollutants in the air, dust, soil, water and natural toxins in the environment: exposure and health. 5. Social insects as environmental indicators of ecotoxicological effects in different ecosystems. The book analyzes the carcinogenic, mutagenic, genotoxic and neurotoxic effects of both anthropogenic and natural toxins present in water, soil, air and our surroundings in the form of electro-pollution or electro-smog.

Nucleic Acids in the Environment
Author : Jack T. Trevors,J.Dick van Elsas
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-07
ISBN 10 : 364279050X
Pages : 260 pages
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Molecular biological techniques such as DNA/RNA extraction and purification, and especially the polymerase chain reaction, PCR, are rapidly gaining interest also in related fields, such as microbiology or environmental sciences. They offer new approaches and opportunities for the determination of microbial cells, DNA and RNA from soils, roots, rhizospheres, sediments and aquatic environments. Detailed protocols for these applications are described in this manual.

Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment
Author : Patricia L. Keen,Mark H. M. M. Montforts
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-01-24
ISBN 10 : 0470905425
Pages : 602 pages
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Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

The Antibiotic Paradox
Author : Stuart B. Levy
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2013-11-11
ISBN 10 : 1489960422
Pages : 279 pages
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The discovery of antibiotics heralded medicine's triumph over previously fatal diseases that once destroyed entire civilizations - thus earning their reputation as miracle drugs. But today, the terrifying reality of antibiotic-resistant bacteria resulting from our widespread misuse of antibiotics forewarns us that the miracle may be coming to an end. The seemingly innocent consumer who demands antibiotics to treat nonbacterial diseases such as the common cold or plays doctor by saving old prescriptions for later use is paving the way for a future of antibiotic failure. "What harm can it do?" is a popular refrain of people worldwide as they pop another antibiotic pill. Dr. Stuart Levy - the leading international expert on hazards of antibiotic misuse - reveals how this cavalier and naive attitude about the power of antibiotics can have deadly consequences. He explains that we are presently witnessing a massive evolutionary change in bacteria. This build-up of new antibiotic-resistant bacteria in individuals and the environment worldwide is an insidious and silent process. Thus, unwittingly consumers encounter resistant bacteria in their meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables. Unregulated dispensing of antibiotics in poorer countries breeds countless more resistant strains. Since bacteria recognize no geographical boundaries, resistant forms can travel the globe. If this trend continues to grow unchecked, we may someday find that all of our antibiotics are obsolete. Today doctors can no longer expect that their first choice of antibiotic for women's urinary tract infections or children's ear infections will work. Similarly, cancer therapy is rendered useless if patients are unable to fight infections that are sometimes resistant to eight to ten different drugs. In developing countries, people are now dying of previously treatable diseases that are no longer responsive to traditional antibiotics. These problems are just a harbinger of what will come if we do not act now. Dr. Levy, recognized by The New Yorker for his superb contributions to this field, is sending out an urgent message that the world cannot afford to ignore any longer. The goal of this unprecedented investigation into the dangers of antibiotic misuse is to protect the world community from resistant infections and ensure the success of antibiotics for generations to come.

Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Natural Environments and Long-term Effects
Author : Salvador Mirete,Marcos López Pérez
Publisher : N.A
Release Date : 2017
ISBN 10 : 9781536118186
Pages : 190 pages
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Over the past 70 years, antibiotic therapy has been successfully used to combat infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a phenomenon that can plague the effectiveness of the antibiotics employed, which represents a major concern for human and animal health with important socio-economic consequences. Traditionally, most investigations on antibiotic resistance were conducted almost exclusively in the clinical setting. However, now it is well accepted that the current antibiotic resistance found in human pathogens originated from environmental microbes by means of a horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The present book aims to focus on the importance of natural environments as diverse as rivers, soils and glaciers for the evolution, maintenance and dissemination of resistance genes. Therefore, the chapters included in this volume will be of interest to those scientists, technologists and graduate students involved in the study of antibiotic resistance from an environmental point of view. Also, it is hoped that the issues addressed in this book will serve to better evaluate the implications of these genes in the formulation of public health policies and strategies. These policies and strategies will then be used to reduce the risks of antibiotic resistance in clinical and nonclinical settings.

Antimicrobial Resistance and Food Safety
Author : Chin-Yi Chen,Xianghe Yan,Charlene R. Jackson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2015-04-15
ISBN 10 : 0128013370
Pages : 452 pages
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Antimicrobial Resistance and Food Safety: Methods and Techniques introduces antimicrobial resistant food-borne pathogens, their surveillance and epidemiology, emerging resistance and resistant pathogens. This analysis is followed by a systematic presentation of currently applied methodology and technology, including advanced technologies for detection, intervention, and information technologies. This reference can be used as a practical guide for scientists, food engineers, and regulatory personnel as well as students in food safety, food microbiology, or food science. Includes analysis of all major pathogens of concern Provides many case studies and examples of fundamental research findings Presents recent advances in methodologies and analytical software Demonstrates risk assessment using information technologies in foodborne pathogens

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Author : Jun Lin,Kunihiko Nishino,Marilyn C. Roberts,Marcelo Tolmasky,Rustam I. Aminov,Lixin Zhang
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2015-06-01
ISBN 10 : 2889195260
Pages : 329 pages
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Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.

Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2009-05-10
ISBN 10 : 0309131219
Pages : 330 pages
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Dr. Joshua Lederberg - scientist, Nobel laureate, visionary thinker, and friend of the Forum on Microbial Threats - died on February 2, 2008. It was in his honor that the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop on May 20-21, 2008, to examine Dr. Lederberg's scientific and policy contributions to the marketplace of ideas in the life sciences, medicine, and public policy. The resulting workshop summary, Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation, demonstrates the extent to which conceptual and technological developments have, within a few short years, advanced our collective understanding of the microbiome, microbial genetics, microbial communities, and microbe-host-environment interactions.

Antibiotic Resistance
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2011-01-10
ISBN 10 : 0309156114
Pages : 496 pages
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Years of using, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to discuss the nature and sources of drug-resistant pathogens, the implications for global health, and the strategies to lessen the current and future impact of these superbugs.

Antibiotic Drug Resistance
Author : José-Luis Capelo-Martínez,Gilberto Igrejas
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2019-09-24
ISBN 10 : 1119282527
Pages : 720 pages
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This book presents a thorough and authoritative overview of the multifaceted field of antibiotic science – offering guidance to translate research into tools for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases. Provides readers with knowledge about the broad field of drug resistance Offers guidance to translate research into tools for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases Links strategies to analyze microbes to the development of new drugs, socioeconomic impacts to therapeutic strategies, and public policies to antibiotic-resistance-prevention strategies

Escherichia coli
Author : Amidou Samie
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-07-12
ISBN 10 : 9535133292
Pages : 434 pages
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Escherichia coli is a versatile organism and very diverse. Members of this species vary from very pathogenic agents causing different types of diseases including meningitis, gastroenteritis, and septicemia, just to cite a few, to harmless organisms living in the intestines of both humans and animals. E. coli has also been used as a model organism for most bacteria except a few. For this reason, its study provides a huge advantage and can help understand the mechanisms involved in different processes such as pathogenesis, environmental disinfection, nutrient utilization, antibiotic resistance, and diagnostic/detection methods, and these are indeed the topics discussed in this book. The book has been divided into four main sections representing the different facets of E. coli applications, which include disease, biotechnology, environmental engineering and innovative approaches to detection, and lastly its physiology and cell biology. Such processes can be applied to the study of other organisms as well considering the development of diversity; for example, many organisms are capable of horizontal gene transfer, which is capable of increasing the fitness of the bacterial organisms involved and has a great impact on the control of such bacterial organism.

Xenobiotics in the Soil Environment
Author : Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi,Vivek Kumar,Ajit Varma
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-02-15
ISBN 10 : 3319477447
Pages : 400 pages
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This book describes the vast variety of xenobiotics, such as pesticides, antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, agrochemicals and other pollutants, their interactions with the soil environment, and the currently available strategies and techniques for soil decontamination and bioremediation. Topics covered include: transport mechanisms of pollutants along the Himalayas; use of earthworms in biomonitoring; metagenomic strategies for assessing contaminated sites; xenobiotics in the food chain; phyto-chemical remediation; biodegradation by fungi; and the use of enzymes and potential microbes in biotransformation. Accordingly, the book offers a valuable guide for scientists in the fields of environmental ecology, soil and food sciences, agriculture, and applied microbiology.