Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution provides the reader with an overview of the health effects of air pollution in human subjects. The majority of the book is devoted to the discussion of the health effects of common widespread air pollutants regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through national ambient air quality standards. The book reviews the sources and fate of common air pollutants in ambient air and researches the adverse effects of these outdoor and indoor air pollutants in `in vivo' cell systems, animals, and humans. Research for the book was conducted in controlled laboratory studies and epidemiologic studies. Special emphasis throughout Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution is placed on the effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma.
This book focuses on the health impacts of air pollution in China, especially the epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for the mortality, morbidity, and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and mental health related to pollution. It also provides the latest estimates of the magnitude of the adverse effects of air pollution on the health of the Chinese population. By providing a better understanding of the impact of air pollution on health, it improves the scientific basis of risk assessment, and also helps governments develop policies and other health protection initiatives to reduce the impacts of air pollution. The book offers environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and students a comprehensive and organized body of information in the area of air pollution.
Hazardous Air Pollutant Handbook: Measurements, Properties, and Fate in Ambient Air provides a comprehensive review of the 188 compounds and compound classes designated as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, with a specific focus on their potential presence in ambient air. The relevant chemical and physical properties of the compounds are discussed and tabulated, and suitable methods for their measurement in ambient air are identified. A survey of measurements of ambient HAP concentrations is provided for use in historical comparisons and for evaluating the current human health risks from these chemicals. Finally, the book reviews the atmospheric reactions that control the lifetime and fate of the HAPs in ambient air, and summarizes the current knowledge about their transformation products.
Monitoring of Air Pollutants: Sampling, Sample Preparation and Analytical Techniques provides a comprehensive reference on air pollutant monitoring, addressing experimental approaches to sampling and sample preparation, as well as analytical technologies (instrumental methods) which are applicable to a wide range of topics. The book's purpose is to provide an in-depth resource on the monitoring of ambient air pollutants that covers the basic principles, recent developments, and important applications in the field. Current trends and recent advances are discussed, both with respect to analytical techniques and target air pollutants. All aspects of air pollutant monitoring, from sampling, to sample preparation, and analysis, are covered, making this the book of choice for consultation by air monitoring practitioners. Contains all the information needed for air pollutant monitoring from sampling, to sample preparation, to analysis Provides guidance on the best analytical approach for a target pollutant Presents the pros and cons of included techniques to enable informed decisions Includes case studies based on published practical applications
|Author||: World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe,World Health Organization|
|Publisher||: WHO Regional Office Europe|
|Release Date||: 1999|
|ISBN 10||: 9789289013512|
|Pages||: 196 pages|
A guide to the principles and methods of air quality assessment aimed at measuring population exposure to ambient air pollutants and estimating the effects on health. Addressed to policy-makers as well as scientists engaged in air quality monitoring, the book responds to the failure of most monitoring systems to provide data that are useful in estimating and managing threats to health. The need for exposure data on populations at special risk is also addressed. Throughout, emphasis is placed on methods of monitoring and modelling that are cost-effective, targeted, and appropriate to local and national conditions. The report has six chapters. The first introduces WHO activities related to air quality management and explains the need for monitoring systems capable of assessing health impact. The types of information required for health impact assessment are described in chapter two, which outlines several methods of monitoring and modelling that can be used to measure the level and distribution of exposure to air pollutants in populations, identify population groups with high exposure, and estimate adverse effects on health. Chapter three formulates a general concept of air quality assessment, offering advice on principles for designing a monitoring network, interpreting and reporting data, and solving problems with quality assurance. Also included is a comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of different methods for air quality monitoring. Against this background, the fourth and most extensive chapter describes specific methods for the monitoring of carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, lead, and atmospheric cadmium. Monitoring strategies for each pollutant are presented according to a standard format, which covers health effects, sources and exposure patterns, monitoring methods, recommended strategies for monitoring and assessment, and a practical example. The remaining chapters offer advice on the collation, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data, and summarize the main conclusions and recommendations of the report. Detailed technical guidelines for the use of various methods and models are provided in a series of annexes. The report also reproduces the newly revised WHO air quality guidelines for Europe.
This book presents revised guideline values for the four most common air pollutants - particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - based on a recent review of the accumulated scientific evidence. The rationale for selection of each guideline value is supported by a synthesis of information emerging from research on the health effects of each pollutant. As a result, these guidelines now also apply globally. They can be read in conjunction with Air quality guidelines for Europe, 2nd edition, which is still the authority on guideline values for all other air pollutants. As well as revised guideline values, this book makes a brief yet comprehensive review of the issues affecting the application of the guidelines in risk assessment and policy development. Further, it summarizes information on: . pollution sources and levels in various parts of the world, . population exposure and characteristics affecting sensitivity to pollution, . methods for quantifying the health burden of air pollution, and . the use of guidelines in developing air quality standards and other policy tools. Finally, the special case of indoor air pollution is explored. Prepared by a large team of renowned international experts who considered conditions in various parts of the globe, these guidelines are applicable throughout the world. They provide reliable guidance for policy-makers everywhere when considering the various options for air quality management.
"The combination of scientific and institutional integrity represented by this book is unusual. It should be a model for future endeavors to help quantify environmental risk as a basis for good decisionmaking."--William D. Ruckelshaus, from the foreword. This volume, prepared under the auspices of the Health Effects Institute, an independent research organization created and funded jointly by the Environmental Protection Agency and the automobile industry, brings together experts on atmospheric exposure and on the biological effects of toxic substances to examine what is known--and not known--about the human health risks of automotive emissions.
|Author||: Lixin Li,Xiaolu Zhou,Weitian Tong|
|Release Date||: 2019-11-13|
|ISBN 10||: 012816526X|
|Pages||: 328 pages|
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health reviews, in detail, the tools needed to understand the spatial temporal distribution and trends of air pollution in the atmosphere, including how this information can be tied into the diverse amount of public health data available using accurate GIS techniques. By utilizing GIS to monitor, analyze and visualize air pollution problems, it has proven to not only be the most powerful, accurate and flexible way to understand the atmosphere, but also a great way to understand the impact air pollution has in diverse populations. This book is essential reading for novices and experts in atmospheric science, geography and any allied fields investigating air pollution. Introduces readers to the benefits and uses of geo-spatiotemporal analyses of big data to reveal new and greater understanding of the intersection of air pollution and health Ties in machine learning to improve speed and efficacy of data models Includes developing visualizations, historical data, and real-time air pollution in large geographic areas
This report presents a summary of methods and results of the latest World Health Organization (WHO) global assessment of ambient air pollution exposure and the resulting burden of disease. To date, air pollution -- both ambient (outdoor) and household (indoor) -- is the biggest environmental risk to health, carrying responsibility for about one in every nine deaths annually. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution alone kills around 3 million people each year, mainly from noncommunicable diseases. Air pollution continues to rise at an alarming rate, and affects economies and people's quality of life; it is a public health emergency. Interventions and policies for tackling air pollution issues exist and have been proven to be effective. Air pollution has also been identified as a global health priority in the sustainable development agenda. The role of the health sector is crucial, and there is a need to engage with other sectors to maximize the co-benefits of health, climate, environment, social and development. Saving people's lives is the overarching aim to implement policies aiming at tackling air pollution in the health, transport, energy, and urban development sectors.
Essential hypertension is a quantitative characteristic that is important for correlating with the rate of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing countries. The etiology of essential hypertension is complex. This work, authored by renowned researchers in the field, gives updated concepts about essential hypertension. Novel advanced topics are presented in a sole document as hypertension in children; the contribution in the psychiatric comorbidities associated with it; mechanisms of omega-3 in protection against hypertension-related organ damage; oxidative stress at different levels; genetics-associated studies; the role of pollution in essential hypertension; personalized healthcare in a hypertensive patient; and hypertension-related disparities between ethnic groups. It can conclude so that essential hypertension is one of the hottest topics in contemporary medicine.
This book presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. The substances considered in this review, i.e. benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene), radon, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, have indoor sources, are known in respect of their hazardousness to health and are often found indoors in concentrations of health concern. The guidelines are targeted at public health professionals involved in preventing health risks of environmental exposures, as well as specialists and authorities involved in the design and use of buildings, indoor materials and products. They provide a scientific basis for legally enforceable standards.