alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies for improved environmental performance

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Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance
Author : Richard Folkson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-03-19
ISBN 10 : 0857097423
Pages : 784 pages
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Most vehicles run on fossil fuels, and this presents a major emissions problem as demand for fuel continues to increase. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies gives an overview of key developments in advanced fuels and vehicle technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector. Part I considers the role of alternative fuels such as electricity, alcohol, and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as advanced additives and oils, in environmentally sustainable transport. Part II explores methods of revising engine and vehicle design to improve environmental performance and fuel economy. It contains chapters on improvements in design, aerodynamics, combustion, and transmission. Finally, Part III outlines developments in electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, and provides an overview of the benefits and limitations of these vehicles in terms of their environmental impact, safety, cost, and design practicalities. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies is a standard reference for professionals, engineers, and researchers in the automotive sector, as well as vehicle manufacturers, fuel system developers, and academics with an interest in this field. Provides a broad-ranging review of recent research into advanced fuels and vehicle technologies that will be instrumental in improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of the automotive sector Reviews the development of alternative fuels, more efficient engines, and powertrain technologies, as well as hybrid and electric vehicle technologies

Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2013-04-14
ISBN 10 : 0309268524
Pages : 394 pages
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For a century, almost all light-duty vehicles (LDVs) have been powered by internal combustion engines operating on petroleum fuels. Energy security concerns about petroleum imports and the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on global climate are driving interest in alternatives. Transitions to Alternative Vehicles and Fuels assesses the potential for reducing petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by 80 percent across the U.S. LDV fleet by 2050, relative to 2005. This report examines the current capability and estimated future performance and costs for each vehicle type and non-petroleum-based fuel technology as options that could significantly contribute to these goals. By analyzing scenarios that combine various fuel and vehicle pathways, the report also identifies barriers to implementation of these technologies and suggests policies to achieve the desired reductions. Several scenarios are promising, but strong, and effective policies such as research and development, subsidies, energy taxes, or regulations will be necessary to overcome barriers, such as cost and consumer choice.

Fuels to Drive Our Future
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Energy Engineering Board,Committee on Production Technologies for Liquid Transportation Fuels
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1990-01-01
ISBN 10 : 0309041422
Pages : 244 pages
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The American love affair with the automobile is powered by gasoline and diesel fuel, both produced from petroleum. But experts are turning more of their attention to alternative sources of liquid transportation fuels, as concerns mount about U.S. dependence on foreign oil, falling domestic oil production, and the environment. This book explores the potential for producing liquid transportation fuels by enhanced oil recovery from existing reservoirs, and processing resources such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, natural gas, and other promising approaches. Fuels to Drive Our Future draws together relevant geological, technical, economic, and environmental factors and recommends specific directions for U.S. research and development efforts on alternative fuel sources. Of special interest is the book's benchmark cost analysis comparing several major alternative fuel production processes. This volume will be of special interest to executives and engineers in the automotive and fuel industries, policymakers, environmental and alternative fuel specialists, energy economists, and researchers.

Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Light-Duty Vehicles, Phase 2
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2015-09-28
ISBN 10 : 0309373913
Pages : 466 pages
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The light-duty vehicle fleet is expected to undergo substantial technological changes over the next several decades. New powertrain designs, alternative fuels, advanced materials and significant changes to the vehicle body are being driven by increasingly stringent fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards. By the end of the next decade, cars and light-duty trucks will be more fuel efficient, weigh less, emit less air pollutants, have more safety features, and will be more expensive to purchase relative to current vehicles. Though the gasoline-powered spark ignition engine will continue to be the dominant powertrain configuration even through 2030, such vehicles will be equipped with advanced technologies, materials, electronics and controls, and aerodynamics. And by 2030, the deployment of alternative methods to propel and fuel vehicles and alternative modes of transportation, including autonomous vehicles, will be well underway. What are these new technologies - how will they work, and will some technologies be more effective than others? Written to inform The United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards, this new report from the National Research Council is a technical evaluation of costs, benefits, and implementation issues of fuel reduction technologies for next-generation light-duty vehicles. Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles estimates the cost, potential efficiency improvements, and barriers to commercial deployment of technologies that might be employed from 2020 to 2030. This report describes these promising technologies and makes recommendations for their inclusion on the list of technologies applicable for the 2017-2025 CAFE standards.

Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee on the Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership, Phase 5
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2017-08-28
ISBN 10 : 0309456878
Pages : 254 pages
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Review of the Research Program of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership: Fifth Report follows on four previous reviews of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, which was the predecessor of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership. The U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle Efficiency and Energy Sustainability) vision, according to the charter of the Partnership, is this: American consumers have a broad range of affordable personal transportation choices that reduce petroleum consumption and significantly reduce harmful emissions from the transportation sector. Its mission is as follows: accelerate the development of pre-competitive and innovative technologies to enable a full range of efficient and clean advanced light-duty vehicles (LDVs), as well as related energy infrastructure. The Partnership focuses on precompetitive research and development (R&D) that can help to accelerate the emergence of advanced technologies to be commercialization-feasible. The guidance for the work of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership as well as the priority setting and targets for needed research are provided by joint industry/government technical teams. This structure has been demonstrated to be an effective means of identifying high-priority, long-term precompetitive research needs for each technology with which the Partnership is involved. Technical areas in which research and development as well as technology validation programs have been pursued include the following: internal combustion engines (ICEs) potentially operating on conventional and various alternative fuels, automotive fuel cell power systems, hydrogen storage systems (especially onboard vehicles), batteries and other forms of electrochemical energy storage, electric propulsion systems, hydrogen production and delivery, and materials leading to vehicle weight reductions.

Alternative Fuels and Their Utilization Strategies in Internal Combustion Engines
Author : Akhilendra Pratap Singh,Yogesh C. Sharma,Nirendra N. Mustafi,Avinash Kumar Agarwal
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-10-10
ISBN 10 : 9811504180
Pages : 329 pages
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This book covers alternative fuels and their utilization strategies in internal combustion engines. The main objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the production and utilization aspects of different types of liquid and gaseous alternative fuels. In the last few years, methanol and DME have gained significant attention of the energy sector, because of their capability to be utilized in different types of engines. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers alike.

Health Effects of Transport-related Air Pollution
Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : WHO Regional Office Europe
Release Date : 2005
ISBN 10 : 9289013737
Pages : 190 pages
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Diseases related to the air pollution caused by road transport affect tens of thousands of people in the WHO Europe region each year. This publication considers the policy challenges involved in the need to reduce the related risks to public health and the environment, whilst meeting socio-economic requirements for effective transport systems. It sets out a systematic review of the literature and a comprehensive evaluation of the health hazards of transport-related air pollution, including factors determining emissions, the contribution of traffic to pollution levels, human exposure and the results of epidemiological and toxicological studies to identify and measure the health effects, and suggestions for policy actions and further research.

Prospects of Alternative Transportation Fuels
Author : Akhilendra P Singh,Rashmi Avinash Agarwal,Avinash Kumar Agarwal,Atul Dhar,Mritunjay Kumar Shukla
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-11-28
ISBN 10 : 9811075182
Pages : 405 pages
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This book discusses different types of alternative fuels, including biodiesel, alcohol, synthetic fuels, compressed natural gas (CNG) and its blend with hydrogen, HCNG, and provides detailed information on the utilization of these alternative fuels in internal combustion (IC) engines. Further, it presents methods for production of these alternative fuels and explores advanced combustion techniques, such as low-temperature and dual-fuel combustion, using alternative fuels. It includes a chapter on the soot morphology of biodiesel, which focuses on the toxicity. There are also four chapters on hydrogen-fueled engines, which discuss use of hydrogen in IC engines and also provide important information on the methodologies. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers alike.

Autonomous Vehicle Technology
Author : James M. Anderson,Kalra Nidhi,Karlyn D. Stanley,Paul Sorensen,Constantine Samaras,Oluwatobi A. Oluwatola
Publisher : Rand Corporation
Release Date : 2014-01-10
ISBN 10 : 0833084372
Pages : 214 pages
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The automotive industry appears close to substantial change engendered by “self-driving” technologies. This technology offers the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare—saving lives; reducing crashes, congestion, fuel consumption, and pollution; increasing mobility for the disabled; and ultimately improving land use. This report is intended as a guide for state and federal policymakers on the many issues that this technology raises.

Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution
Author : Adolfo Iulianelli,Angelo Basile
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-07-16
ISBN 10 : 0857097733
Pages : 574 pages
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Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution reviews recent developments in this key component of the emerging "hydrogen economy," an energy infrastructure based on hydrogen. Since hydrogen can be produced without using fossil fuels, a move to such an economy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. However, such a move also requires the advanced production, storage and usage techniques discussed in this book. Part one introduces the fundamentals of hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, including an overview of the development of the necessary infrastructure, an analysis of the potential environmental benefits, and a review of some important hydrogen production technologies in conventional, bio-based, and nuclear power plants. Part two focuses on hydrogen production from renewable resources, and includes chapters outlining the production of hydrogen through water electrolysis, photocatalysis, and bioengineered algae. Finally, part three covers hydrogen production using inorganic membrane reactors, the storage of hydrogen, fuel cell technology, and the potential of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation. Advances in Hydrogen Production, Storage and Distribution provides a detailed overview of the components and challenges of a hydrogen economy. This book is an invaluable resource for research and development professionals in the energy industry, as well as academics with an interest in this important subject. Reviews developments and research in this dynamic area Discusses the challenges of creating an infrastructure to store and distribute hydrogen Reviews the production of hydrogen using electrolysis and photo-catalytic methods

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Tropospheric Ozone
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1992-02-01
ISBN 10 : 0309046319
Pages : 524 pages
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Despite more than 20 years of regulatory efforts, concern is widespread that ozone pollution in the lower atmosphere, or troposphere, threatens the health of humans, animals, and vegetation. This book discusses how scientific information can be used to develop more effective regulations to control ozone. Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution discusses: The latest data and analysis on how tropospheric ozone is formed. How well our measurement techniques are functioning. Deficiencies in efforts to date to control the problem. Approaches to reducing ozone precursor emissions that hold the most promise. What additional research is needed. With a wealth of technical information, the book discusses atmospheric chemistry, the role of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone formation, monitoring and modeling the formation and transport processes, and the potential contribution of alternative fuels to solving the tropospheric ozone problem. The committee discusses criteria for designing more effective ozone control efforts. Because of its direct bearing on decisions to be made under the Clean Air Act, this book should be of great interest to environmental advocates, industry, and the regulatory community as well as scientists, faculty, and students.

Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Author : National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Committee to Assess Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2010-08-30
ISBN 10 : 0309149827
Pages : 250 pages
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Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles evaluates various technologies and methods that could improve the fuel economy of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, such as tractor-trailers, transit buses, and work trucks. The book also recommends approaches that federal agencies could use to regulate these vehicles' fuel consumption. Currently there are no fuel consumption standards for such vehicles, which account for about 26 percent of the transportation fuel used in the U.S. The miles-per-gallon measure used to regulate the fuel economy of passenger cars. is not appropriate for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, which are designed above all to carry loads efficiently. Instead, any regulation of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles should use a metric that reflects the efficiency with which a vehicle moves goods or passengers, such as gallons per ton-mile, a unit that reflects the amount of fuel a vehicle would use to carry a ton of goods one mile. This is called load-specific fuel consumption (LSFC). The book estimates the improvements that various technologies could achieve over the next decade in seven vehicle types. For example, using advanced diesel engines in tractor-trailers could lower their fuel consumption by up to 20 percent by 2020, and improved aerodynamics could yield an 11 percent reduction. Hybrid powertrains could lower the fuel consumption of vehicles that stop frequently, such as garbage trucks and transit buses, by as much 35 percent in the same time frame.