Adenosine Receptors in Neurodegenerative Diseases covers the role of adenosine receptors in brain function, also focusing on related methodologies and perspectives in therapeutics. The book provides an up-to-date overview by the best specialists in the field, helping readers consider the importance of adenosine and expand the global impact and visibility of adenosine research in the CNS field. Chapters include adenosine biology and signaling, gene regulation, control of motor function, and novel adenosine-based therapies in the CNS. It is an ideal resource for researchers, advanced graduate students, clinicians, and industry scientists working in the fields of clinical neuroscience and molecular and cellular neuroscience. Comprehensive reference that details adenosine receptors in neurodegenerative disorders, with details on brain function and possible therapeutics Gives insights on how these receptors modulate the neurodegenerative outcomes in different disorders Edited by two of the leading researchers in the field regarding adenosine role in the brain in aging and neurodegenerative conditions
Since their discovery approximately 25 years ago, adenosine receptors have now emerged as important novel molecular targets in disease and drug discovery. These proteins play important roles in the entire spectrum of disease from inflammation to immune suppression. Because of their expression on a number of different cell types and in a number of different organ systems they play important roles in specific diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, sepsis, and obesity. As a result of intense investigations into understanding the molecular structures and pharmacology of these proteins, new molecules have been synthesized that have high specificity for these proteins and are now entering clinical trials. These molecules will define the next new classes of drugs for a number of diseases with unmet medical needs.
This book traces the history of adenosine receptor research from molecular biology to medicinal chemistry to behavior, including their implications in disease and potential strategies as therapeutic targets. It provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the adenosine receptors that includes information on all subtypes - A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Aspects addressed include the most up to date information on their functional distribution in the nervous and peripheral systems, behavioral roles in inflammation, cancer, pain and neurological diseases such as Huntington’s disease, Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
This book is the first definitive overview on adenosine receptor antagonists and their application to the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. The effect of these novel non-dopamine drugs on vitro and in vivo systems clearly shows their potential for the treatment of this debilitating disease. This book covers how the Parkinson's disease antagonist drug, A2A, has been researched, developed, and tested. It is an essential book for researchers interested in the basal ganglia, purine biology, and Parkinson's Disease. Discusses the discovery and development of a novel non-dopaminomimetic agent for Parkinson's disease Provides the first definitive overview of adenosine antagonists and their role in the treatment of Parkinson's disease Presents a new mechanism of action of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists in motor function Proposes a hypothesis of adenosine A2A receptor function in the striatum Comprehensive overview of adenosine, its receptor subtypes, their antagonists/agonists from biochemistry, molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and neurochemistry viewpoints
After a century of research, several lines of evidence now indicate that the ability of adenosine to directly control inflammatory cells has a major impact on the functions of the inflammatory and immune systems. Consequently, many promising therapeutic approaches are beginning to emerge that focus on the modulation of adenosine, including the development of compounds that interfere with the breakdown of adenosine, as well as specific agonists and antagonists of various adenosine subtypes. Some of these compounds have already entered clinical trials. While information on the role of adenosine is growing rapidly, until now it has remained scattered in the literature. Edited by three pioneering researchers in the field, Adenosine Receptors: Therapeutic Aspects for Inflammatory and Immune Diseases presents the first single volume compilation of reviews on how adenosine, acting on its cellular receptors, regulates immune responses. The book is organized to provide the reader with a general overview of adenosine receptors, delving into molecular biology, cell biology, and pharmacology. Separate chapters focus on the role of adenosine receptors in regulating the function of the various cell types that are involved in immune responses. Further chapters delineate the role of purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of a variety of disease states associated with an overzealous or insufficient immune response. These include autoimmune diseases, asthma, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer. Much of the methodology and findings documented in this text may well lead to new therapeutic modalities for pathologies such as ischemia and reperfusion, heart disease, wound healing, tumors, pain, and a variety of central nervous system diseases including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and epilepsy, as well as mood and sleep disorders. This resource provides background and direction for those researchers entering the field of adenosine and inflammatory disease, and provides a comprehensive reference for experienced investigators.
Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have shown great promise in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease and alleviation of symptoms. This book addresses various aspects of this class of drugs from their chemical development to their clinical use. Among the many insightful chapters contained in this book, there are three unique reviews that have not previously been published in any format: (1) a history of istradefylline, the first A2A antagonist approved for treatment of Parkinson's Disease, (2) an overview of neuroimaging studies in human death and disease and (3) a study of urate as a possible biomarker and neuroprotectant.
Homeostasis of key metabolites and metabolic health affects all bodily systems. Not surprisingly, altered metabolic function is associated with a wide spectrum of dysfunctions in the central nervous system – including developmental disorders, acute nervous system injury, and neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, metabolism-based therapies offer significant promise as new category of treatment options designed to limit, delay or reverse the disease process by reconstructing homeostatic functions. Increasingly it is appreciated that restoring metabolic health could promote normal nervous system activity, and improve behavior and cognition. Adenosine: A Key Link Between Metabolism and Central Nervous System Activity focusses on diverse aspects of adenosine, an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic bioenergetic regulator in the central nervous system. Because of its interrelationship with ATP (adenosine triphosphate), adenosine is integral to cell metabolism. At the same time, adenosine influences neuronal activity directly via receptors, and is involved in biochemical processes related to gene expression. Thus, adenosine is uniquely placed as a reciprocal and rapid link between changes in metabolism and changes in neuronal activity, and, on a longer time scale, to changes in gene expression and long term changes in cell function. Leaders in the field feature basic research on adenosine at the cellular level in the central nervous system, and relate these findings to its recognized potential in diverse acute and chronic disorders. This comprehensive overview of adenosine also highlights emerging adenosine-based treatments and associated opportunities for central nervous system disorders.
Research centering on blood flow in the heart continues to hold an important position, especially since a better understanding of the subject may help reduce the incidence of coronary arterial disease and heart attacks. This book summarizes recent advances in the field; it is the product of fruitful cooperation among international scientists who met in Japan in May, 1990 to discuss the regulation of coronary blood flow.
In the present volume of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology well known experts describe the actions of different xanthines with a focus on caffeine and theophylline. A special chapter is devoted to theobromine, an active component of chocolate, the actions of which are less well characterized. This book also presents the pharmacology of one xanthine derivative, propentofylline, as an example of a xanthine that has gone through extensive development for a novel therapeutic area.
Coffee: Emerging Health Benefits and Disease Prevention presents a comprehensive overview of the recent scientific advances in the field. The book focuses on the following topics: coffee constituents; pro– and antioxidant properties of coffee constituents; bioavailability of coffee constituents; health benefits and disease prevention effects of coffee; and potential negative impacts on health. Multiple chapters describe coffee′s positive impact on health and various diseases: type 2 diabetes; neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson′s and Alzheimer′s); cancer (prostate, bladder, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, colon and colorectal); cardiovascular health; and liver health. Coffee′s positive effects on mood, suicide rate and cognitive performance are addressed as are the negative health impacts of coffee on pregnancy, insulin sensitivity, dehydration, gastric irritation, anxiety, and withdrawal syndrome issues. Written by many of the top researchers in the world, Coffee: Emerging Health Benefits and Disease Prevention is a must–have reference for food professionals in academia, industry, and governmental and regulatory agencies whose work involves coffee.
This volume contains the proceedings of an International Symposium on `Second Messenger Systems - Molecular, Cellular and Behavioural Aspects', which was held at Tobago on June 16-17, 1994. The interaction of an extracellular agonist (First Messenger) with its plasma membrane receptor leads to the transmission of a signal across the cell membrane and results in the production and/or activation of other signalling molecules (Second Messengers). These Second Messengers control the action of many protein kinases and protein phosphatases and so lead to cellular responses. Although the biochemical basis of the transduction of signals in the main signalling systems in eukaryotic cells is probably largely known, intensified research is ongoing in the following areas: the discovery of specific substrates for many protein kinases, elucidation of the biological significance of the differential tissue expression and heterogeneity of many signalling proteins, and the unravelling of diverse interactions (such as signal potentiation, synergism, antagonism and neuronal co-transmission) between signalling systems. As knowledge from such studies accumulates, it is becoming clear that the `cross talk' interactions between signalling systems are important features of dynamic cell regulation. This volume is designed to summarize some aspects of the current work on various Second Messenger Systems and the integration of signals with respect to plasma membrane receptors. Second Messenger generation and degradation, protein kinase and phosphatase, cell cycle control, and cellular learning and memory.
A timely overview covering the three major types of glial cells in the central nervous system - astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. New findings on glia biology are overturning a century of conventional thinking about how the brain operates and are expanding our knowledge about information processing in the brain. The book will present recent research findings on the role of glial cells in both healthy function and disease. It will comprehensively cover a broad spectrum of topics while remaining compact in size.